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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the brain and previously thought of as incurable [R]. However, the idea that MS can be hacked and put into remission has recently emerged.

In this post, we review treatments for MS and how they work – both alternative and conventional.

Note: SelfHacked does not promote the use or no use of drugs.

Part 2 of a 3-Part Series

The Wahls Protocol Review

The Wahls Protocol developed by Dr. Terry Wahls involves a modified paleolithic diet with antioxidants, nutritional supplements, stretching, neuromuscular stimulation, and strengthening exercises. The purpose behind this regimen is to increase the quality of life and combat fatigue,  a disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis [R].

The purpose of the Wahls Protocol diet is to [R]:

  • reduce inflammation
  • improve mitochondrial function
  • correct nutritional deficiencies that contribute to the disease
  • reduce oxidative stress and protect the nerve cells by providing dietary antioxidants

Important nutrients in the Wahls Protocol include vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids, coenzyme Q, and dietary enzymes [R].

The Wahls Protocol is categorized into 3 levels – Wahls Diet (allows gluten-free grains and legumes), Wahls Paleo, and Wahls Paleo Plus with varying levels of restrictions. The Wahls Paleo Plus recommends using fats liberally and reducing proteins to enter ketosis.

The following are foods and recommendations related to the Wahls Protocol Diets [R]:

  • Green leafy vegetables – recommended 3 servings
  • Sulfur-rich vegetables such as cruciferous vegetables, onion-family vegetables, and mushrooms – recommended 3 servings
  • Intensely colored fruits or vegetables – recommended 3 servings
  • Omega-3 oils – encouraged 2 tablespoons
  • Animal protein – encouraged 4 ounces or more
  • Organic meats – at least 1 serving per week
  • Plant protein – encouraged 4 ounces or more
  • Nutritional yeast – encouraged 1 tablespoon
  • Alternative types of milk (soy, almond, peanut, rice, and coconut) – encouraged, subjective to individual choice
  • Kelp – encouraged ¼ teaspoon
  • Green algae – encouraged ¼-1 teaspoon
  • Gluten-free starchy vegetables and fruits – allowed only 2 servings per week
  • Added fats, including coconut oil, avocados, olive oils, nuts, and seeds

The protocol also recommends eating 2 meals a day and fasting 12 – 16 hours every day (including sleep time).

Is the Wahls Protocol Effective?

In the few studies that are available, this diet seems to have a disease-modifying effect. It not only reduces symptoms but also helps with the regeneration of the destroyed neuronal tissues beyond what conventional treatments could do.

For Dr. Terry Wahls herself, the diet, in combination with exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation reversed most of her MS symptoms [R, R]. In a short pilot study involving 12 MS patients, the diet, together with exercise, stretching, massage, and meditation, significantly reduced fatigue [R].

Additional larger and controlled studies would be necessary to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of this protocol.

Why the Wahl’s Protocol Works: Potential Mechanism

The Wahl’s Protocol is a mild ketogenic diet.

Ketogenic diets have been used to successfully manage many neurological diseases including epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases [R]. A ketogenic diet may help with MS by:

  • Inhibiting mTOR, thus suppressing Th1 and Th17 dominance, while increasing Treg [R]
  • Reducing glucose metabolism, which protects against glutamate-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in the brain [R]
  • Activating autophagy, which allows for cellular clean up of damaged myelin and neurons [R]
  • Supporting myelination [R]
  • Increasing Sirt1 (important for cognitive function, brain, and synaptic plasticity) and BDNF levels by ketone bodies [RR]

This protocol also eliminates common inflammatory foods.

The Wahls Protocol eliminates gluten, dairy, and legumes, which are some of the most inflammatory foods for people with autoimmunity.

By eliminating gluten, the diet reduces leaky gut and leaky brain through the zonulin pathway.

Dairy protein butyrophilin is similar to proteins on myelin, which could trigger MS [R].

Legumes contain some of the most harmful lectins, but it is allowed on the Wahls protocol if prepared properly to reduce lectins and other harmful substances.

Wahls Protocol is a micronutrient-dense diet that supports the mitochondria.

The basis of the Wahls Protocol is that it supplies a lot of nutrients and antioxidants for the mitochondria.

The mitochondrial enzyme that consumes oxygen (complex IV) can be blocked by nitric oxide, which is generated in high levels around active MS lesions [RR]. This can cause symptoms of low oxygen, increased oxidative stress, and subsequently brain degeneration.

The mitochondria, therefore, is a potential therapeutic target for MS treatment. However, a challenge in devising such therapy is that it is difficult to ensure that these antioxidants enter the brain, the affected cells, and the mitochondria [R]. Additional studies would be necessary to test whether this diet improves MS outcomes mainly through supporting mitochondrial function.

By providing a lot of fats and other micronutrients, this diet also provides building blocks that support brain health and brain regeneration [R, R].

This protocol also addresses other factors, not only diet.

Management of autoimmune diseases typically involves much more than diet alone.

The Wahls Protocol also addresses these other factors by recommending:

  • Exercise therapy, which helps stimulate neuronal regeneration by increasing BDNF and NGF
  • Neuromuscular stimulation, which helps reduces spasms and muscle wasting
  • Meditation and stress management, which reduces inflammation
  • Reducing toxic load, which is a risk factor and may cause MS

The Swank Diet Review

The Swank diet was developed in the 50s before multiple sclerosis was well understood as an autoimmune disease. Interestingly, the term “autoimmune” was not used in any of Dr. Swank’s published reports, including ones that were published as late as in the 90s.

This diet is based on the (incorrect or incomplete) assumption that saturated fat consumption caused MS because the incidence of MS seemed to be higher in regions and during times of higher fat consumption [R]. The author, however, was aware that saturated fats or fat consumption may not be the sole cause of MS.

The Swank diet, developed by Dr. Roy Swank, consists of eating foods with very low saturated fat (less than 20 grams a day). Butter fats and hydrogenated oils are eliminated from this diet. The diet contains lean meats such as fish, seafood, skinless turkey, and the white meat of the chicken. These meats are supplemented with skimmed milk, vegetables, cereal, nuts, and one egg a day [R].

The Swank diet diminished the frequency of attacks and severity of MS over the course of 50 years [R].

However, so far only one cohort study has examined the relations between fat consumption and MS risks. This study reported that low consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, but not high consumption of saturated or animal fats, were associated with increased MS risks [R].

A recent randomized controlled study demonstrated that a low-fat diet supplemented with fish oil decreased the number of MS relapses [R].

While the Swank diet may have some effectiveness, it is likely that the diet affects the course of disease through other means than lowered saturated fats.

Alternative/Adjunct Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

There are several treatments that can mitigate and manage symptoms of MS. In this section, we review the literature involving natural options to manage MS.

1) Physiotherapy and Exercise

Physical therapy, or rehabilitation exercises, are helpful with reducing fatigue in patients who are not bed-bound [R].

A meta-analysis of many clinical studies demonstrated that exercise therapy is generally safe for MS with the exception of falls. The odds of relapse triggered by exercise is low [R]. However, care should be taken to prevent exacerbation of symptoms from body heat generated by exercise.

These exercise therapy for MS can be beneficial to patients not experiencing an exacerbation [R, R].

2) Chiropractic Medicine for the Mitigation of Pain

Pain medication carries the risk of addiction. Chiropractic medicine serves as a viable alternative for the mitigation of chronic pain caused by MS [R]. However, the lack of knowledge and moderate uptake of chiropractic medicine has been the limiting factor for widespread use [R].

Spinal manipulation in chiropractic medicine has been shown to mitigate acute and chronic lower back pain. This technique alleviates pressure and stiffness caused by other tissues in previous injuries or degenerative conditions [R].

Although chiropractic medicine shows strong potential to be a physical treatment for MS, more studies are needed to validate the efficacy of these treatments [R].

3) Massage Therapy

Massage therapy helps with MS, with benefits including [R]:

  • Pain reduction
  • Reduced spasms
  • Improved circulation
  • Increased joint and limb mobility
  • Decreased fatigue

The conditions that cause fatigue in MS are not well defined. Damages to the (central) nervous system such as MS lesions and inflammation can contribute to fatigue. Massage therapy has been shown to diminish fatigue and pain in MS patients [R].

Tight muscle tension can cause direct pain in the muscles by activating the pain receptors and restricting blood flow to that area (ischemia) [R].

Massage helps reduce the tension in the muscles leading to pain and spasm reduction. Massage also increases blood flow to affected areas. Other benefits of massage include relaxation and sleep improvement [R].

Relaxation caused by massage therapy also reduces anxiety and stress levels by increasing parasympathetic nervous system activity and decreasing cortisol [R].

Stress reduction not only increases the quality of life in MS patients but also helps manage physical symptoms [R].

Massage is a safe, non-invasive supplementary treatment option that helps manage stress and the physical symptoms of MS [R].

4) Reflexology

Reflexology is one of the most common and low-cost treatments in complementary medicine [R].

Reflexology is the study of how one part of the body is related to another. Application of the appropriate pressure and massage will stimulate other parts of the body, exerting its therapeutic effects [R].

Reflexology applies pressure with the thumb and fingers to specific points of the feet that are related to internal organs or glands [R].

Foot reflexology therapy effectively increases blood and lymph circulation, which helps stabilize the movement of muscles, joints, and tendons. This improvement in mobility also reinforces muscle strength and promotes relaxation [R].

The following are benefits of reflexology in the context of MS [R, R]

  • Reducing pain
  • Stopping muscle spasms
  • Reducing bladder and bowel problems
  • Improving mobility
  • Decreasing fatigue

In a randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial (53 participants) on reflexology, specific reflexology treatment has demonstrated alleviation in mobility, sensation, and urinary symptoms in MS patients [R].

Supplements for MS

Omega-3 Fatty Acids (FAs)

High intake of saturated fatty acids increases the risk of MS. Omega-3 fatty acids are a great alternative to reduce the risk of MS [R].

Omega-3 FAs are “essential fatty acids” that cannot be produced by the human body. As a result, this nutrient must come from the diet. Omega-3 FAs can be found in fish, fish oil, flaxseeds, flaxseed oil, soy products, soybean oil, and canola oil [R].

Administration of Omega-3 FAs reduces inflammation (inflammatory cytokines), which contributes to MS lesions [R].

Some of these fatty acids, such as DHA, can cross the blood brain barrier and act as a major component of neuronal cell membranes. These compounds can not only act as an anti-inflammatory agent but also an inhibitor to T cell transportation to the brain (inhibiting MMP-9) [R].

MS patients have elevated transportation for T cells (elevated MMP-9 proteins and mRNA) in the (central) nervous system. Omega-3 FA inhibits T-cell migration through the blood brain barrier [R].

However, the mechanism of this process is unknown [R].

In a study (DB-PCT), participants taking omega-3 FAs showed no significant difference compared to the controls. However, the results displayed a trend to improvement in the omega-3 treated subjects. The diet of the participants was a confounding effect in the study [R].

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D modulates the immune system [R]. Low vitamin D3 has been associated with MS risks. Among MS patients, lower levels of vitamin D is associated with worse clinical outcomes.

However, clinical trials have shown that vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for MS [R].

Since vitamin D supplementation is generally safe, it is generally recommended as part of the treatment plan for MS.

Fullerene (C60)

Fullerene or C60 derivatives, when combined with drugs that block NMDA receptors, can help with MS. It reduces axonal degeneration, disease progression, monocyte attraction, and penetration of inflammatory cells in mouse models of MS [R].

Conventional Treatments for MS

Although there is no universal cure for MS, several therapies have proven effective in preventing the progression and relapses of the disease. There are no known therapies that promote the regeneration of these deficits because MS damages neurons in the brain [R].

Spontaneous recovery is rare if the damage to the neurons has progressed longer than 6 months [R].

MS long-term disability progresses slowly over many years. As a result, many treatments mitigate the short-term symptoms of the disease [R].

1. Glucocorticoids

A patient with MS (relapsing-remitting MS or primary progressive MS) will commonly face relapses or attacks, which are flare-ups of new or recurring symptoms. Administration of high doses of glucocorticoids (methylprednisolone) or corticosteroids is the current routine therapy for acute relapses [R, R].

The advantages of using glucocorticoids include the rapid functional recovery in patients with acute attacks [R].

Limitations of Glucocorticoids

Administration of intravenous glucocorticoid can lead to potential side effects such as reddening of the face, ankle swelling, and a metallic taste in the mouth. Oral administration of glucocorticoids has more side effects including disturbed sleep, mood changes, and stomach problems [R].

Alos, glucocorticoids only mitigate the short-term symptoms of MS without dealing with the long-term effects [R, R].

High doses of glucocorticoids will not affect long-term disease improvement because of the treatment’s limited effects on MS lesions in the brain. The irreversible damages are not being regenerated [R].

Glucocorticoids may also have detrimental effects on bone density, increasing the risk for bone fracture [R].

2. Disease-Modifying Therapies

Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) were created and approved to manage the long-term effects of MS by slowing the natural course of the disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that disease-modifying therapies (interferon beta, glatiramer acetate) have anti-inflammatory effects and slows the progression in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients [R].

Some disease-modifying therapies (IFNb-1a) promote nerve growth factors (NGF) to support the repair of neurological damages, leading to decrease in lesion activities and disease relapse rates [R].

Disease-modifying treatments (IFNb, glatiramer acetate) also reduce the attack rates or relapses in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and is effective at mitigating those attacks in the earlier stages [R].

Limitations of Disease-Modifying Therapies

Some common adverse side effects of disease-modifying therapies (IFNb, glatiramer acetate) include bruising, redness of the skin, pain, irritation, skin lesions, swelling, and sometimes cell death (necrosis) [R, R].

Other rare potential side effects of disease-modifying therapies (IFNb) include immune system problems (psoriasis), insomnia, hearing loss, hair loss (alopecia), and in more severe and rare cases, liver damage [R, R].

Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is characterized by the progressive worsening of neurologic functioning from the onset of the disease, usually targeting one part of the brain (usually the spinal cord). As the disease progresses, the symptoms increases. Progressive MS is a more advanced form of the disease and is more difficult not only to diagnose but also to treat [R].

Most of the disease-modifying therapy drugs (IFNb, glatiramer acetate) were approved and effective for relapsing-remitting MS. Most of these drugs are not effective against primary progressive MS [R, R].

3. Ocrelizumab

Primary progressive MS is problematic and tricky because patients do not respond to currently available treatments. About 10% of the patients have primary progressive MS, which accumulates neurological deterioration without relapses [R].

On March 28, 2017, the FDA approved ocrelizumab (produced by Hoffmann-La Roche) as the first treatment for primary progressive MS [R, R].

Ocrelizumab is a biologic immunosuppressive drug (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) that binds to immune cells (B cells) and prevents those cells from exerting harmful effects on the body [R].

During clinical trials, ocrelizumab has reduced relapse rates by 46%-47% and disability progression by 40%. Ocrelizumab also incredibly reduced inflammation and decreased the progression of lesions in the brain [R].

Limitations and Contraindications of Ocrelizumab

Ocrelizumab is contraindicated in patients with hepatitis B or allergic reactions to ocrelizumab. Ocrelizumab therapies can lead to increased risk for respiratory tract infections, viral infections of the brain (Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy), or breast cancer [R].

Ocrelizumab is a relatively new, approved drug and the FDA required Hoffmann-La Roche to continue post-marketing surveillance (phase IV trials) and report any risks, side effects, or adverse effects associated with the drug [R].

4. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can be used to treat some of the physical symptoms of MS such as mobility problems, fatigue, and tremors.

Secondary progressive MS exhibits excessive oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. A case report of a 52-year-old female with secondary progressive MS have shown that dietary manipulation and neuromuscular electrical stimulations are synergistic in reducing oxidative stress and excitotoxicity [R].

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been effective at treating muscle spasms, muscle pain, and muscle degeneration (disuse atrophy) [R].

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has also demonstrated efficacy in alleviating some of the symptoms of lower urinary tract complications in MS. In a study (DB-RCT), neuromuscular electrical stimulation significantly reduced incontinence [R].

Despite all of these efficacious effects, further studies are needed to validate the results [R, R].

Part 2 of a 3-Part Series

Health Tools I Wish I Had When I Was Sick

At SelfHacked, it’s our goal to offer our readers all the tools possible to get optimally healthy. When I was struggling with chronic health issues I felt stuck because I didn’t have any tools to help me get better. I had to spend literally thousands of hours trying to read through studies on pubmed to figure out how the body worked and how to fix it.

That’s why I decided to create tools that will help others cut down the guesswork:

  • Lab Test Analyzer – a software tool that will analyze your labs and tell you what the optimal values are for each marker — as well as provide you with actionable tips and personalized health and lifestyle recommendations to help you get there.
  • SelfDecode – a software tool that will help you analyze your genetic data from companies such as 23andme and ancestry. You will learn how your health is being impacted by your genes, and how to use this knowledge to your advantage.
  • SelfHacked Secrets – an ebook where we examine and explain the biggest overlooked environmental factors that cause disease. This ebook is a great place to start your journey if you want to learn the essential steps to optimizing your health.
  • SelfHacked Elimination Diet course – a video course that will help you figure out which diet works best for you
  • Selfhacked Inflammation course – a video course on inflammation and how to bring it down
  • Biohacking insomnia – an ebook on how to get great sleep
  • Lectin Avoidance Cookbook – an e-cookbook for people with food sensitivities
  • BrainGauge – a device that detects subtle brain changes and allows you to test what’s working for you
  • SelfHacked VIP – an area where you can ask me (Joe) questions about health topics

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.


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  • carol close

    The supplement taurine helps in multiple sclerosis because it is able to directly increase available serine pools, which serve as the initial building block required for the synthesis of the glycosphingolipid components of myelin that define the functional oligodendrocyte cells state,

    Taurine could be added to an multiple sclerosis therapy regime in order to boost mature oligodendrocyte production, and therefore remyelination. In doing so, the hope is it would ultimately reduce relapses for multiple sclerosis patients. Taurine boosts oligodendrocyte production in multiple sclerosis. Taurine promotes and resparks remyelination with high dose biotin which is crucial for repairing damage from multiple sclerosis restoring function which serves as a co-factor for essential carboxylase enzymes required for fatty acid synthesis that has recently been demonstrated to provide benefit in patients with non-active progressive multiple sclerosis. Also, triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone that is a “well-known” and most potent agent that induces rapid re-myelination of nerves along with the crucial role of cholesterol. Patients on statins never experience remission and often have the worst form of the disease- primary progressive multiple sclerosis which biotin is found to be very beneficial for.

  • ALLY


    I was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis two years ago by the Department of Veteran affairs. I experience several symptoms that come and go after a couple of days. Early this year i lost my eyesight (left eye) and developed weakness in the left side of my body. Eyesight came back but not the left side mobility. Muscles of my left foot are weak, making it hard to walk in a normal heel-toe pattern. As a result, my foot drags on the ground when I walk. Two months ago I ordered two bottles of MS herbal remedy from Best Health Herbal Centre, which I only used for six weeks and the result was extremely marvellous, all symptoms was terminated and my MS was totally reversed. Thanks to Best Health Herbal Centre, I will never stop sharing my testimony till the whole world know about this wonderful MS herbal remedy and Am so happy to see myself living normal life again.

  • HANK


    I started using multiple sclerosis (MS) herbal remedy i purchased from Best Health Herbal Centre January this year. I only used it for a month and two weeks, my condition changed automatically, all my symptoms are gone. Remaining positive have helped me during this treatment. Now am living MS FREE.
    Hope this will help somebody, remember, do your own research and make your own decisions based on information you have received and digested. Thanks to Best Health Herbal Centre for their amazing work. Forever Grateful!

  • HANK

    I started using multiple sclerosis (MS) herbal remedy i purchased from Best Health Herbal Centre January this year. I only used it for a month and two weeks, my condition changed automatically, all my symptoms are gone. Remaining positive have helped me during this treatment. Now am living MS FREE.
    Hope this will help somebody, remember, do your own research and make your own decisions based on information you have received and digested. Thanks to Best Health Herbal Centre for their amazing work. Forever Grateful!

  • Martha Whitehill

    *If* MS is triggered by C. Pneumoniae, look closely at FABP4 (downregulating) while upregulating PPARy.
    It can be done with a “resin” compound found on Amazon which is also used to control weight. Cpn likes to hang out in many cells…fat cells, T cells, M2 macrophages, etc. DNMT-1 (methyltransferase 1) is overexpressed also due to STAT3 *phosphorylation*. “…causes underlying aberrant DNA methylation in the brains of multiple sclerosis patients”. The cause is FABP4.

  • carol close

    Please delete either my October 9 or October 10 comment. It seems after I post and press “add comment” that a message comes up saying “leave this page or stay on this page” so I am not sure whether or not I posted my comment and I press “stay on this page” and there is no note if I posted or not. I am wondering why “leave this page or stay on this page” comes up? In the October comments, please correct “birth control pills should be formulated with bioidentical hormones and estriol.” to replace estriol with “bioidentical estradiol.” Is it possible to have my January 29 comment after my October 9 comment as a follow up comment.? I would also like to make a note that cuprizone induced demyelination mouse models and mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis are the mouse models used in experiments to find a cure for multiple sclerosis.

  • carol close

    The reasons that progesterone therapy, luteolin therapy and catalpol therapy work in multiple sclerosis.

    Progesterone is produced in high amounts in the ovaries (by the corpus luteum) from the onset of puberty to menopause, and in the testes in males, and is also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands after the onset of adrenarche (preteen age years) in both males and females. No progesterone is made in women after menopause. Progesterone levels in men are as high as women’s levels during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is also produced by cells in the body’s nervous system, where it helps form the protective layer around nerve endings known as the myelin sheath. The nervous system depends on the myelin sheath for insulation and for neurotransmission speed. Normal brain function is not the only thing progesterone is required for in the nervous system. An important role of progesterone is to protect the brain from damage and promote repair after injury. It actually does this by promoting the growth and repair of the myelin sheath that protects the nerve fibers. In fact, both estradiol and progesterone promoted the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in culture, but whereas progesterone increased cellular branching, estradiol stimulated myelin sheath formation. There is also evidence that the addition of progesterone can also help remyelinate damaged axons due to trauma, restoring some lost neural signal conduction. Another way progesterone aids in regeneration includes increasing the circulation of endothelial progenitor cells in the brain.

    This study below shows progesterone therapy switches off demyelination of the central nervous system associated with reactive microglia in neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Progesterone therapy induces an M1 to M2 switch in microglia phenotype and suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome in a cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model. Demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated to reactive microglia in neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The M1 microglia phenotype plays a pro-inflammatory role while M2 is involved in anti-inflammatory processes in the brain. In this study, CPZ-induced demyelination mouse model was used to investigate the effect of progesterone (PRO) therapy on microglia activation and neuro-inflammation. Results showed that progesterone therapy (CPZ+PRO) decreased neurological behavioral deficits, as demonstrated by significantly decreased escape latencies, in comparison to CPZ mice. In addition, CPZ+PRO caused a significant reduction in the mRNA expression levels of M1-markers (iNOS, CD86, MHC-II and TNF-α) in the corpus callosum region, whereas the expression of M2-markers (Trem-2, CD206, Arg-1 and TGF-β) was significantly increased, in comparison to CPZ mice. Moreover, CPZ+PRO resulted in a significant decrease in the number of iNOS+ and Iba-1+/iNOS+ cells (M1), whereas TREM-2+ and Iba-1+/TREM-2+ cells (M2) significantly increased, in comparison to CPZ group. Furthermore, CPZ+PRO caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and IL-18 (~2-fold), in comparison to the CPZ group. Finally, CPZ+PRO therapy was accompanied with reduced levels of demyelination, compared to CPZ, as confirmed by immunofluorescence to myelin basic protein (MBP) and Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) staining, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. In summary, we reported for the first time that PRO therapy causes polarization of M2 microglia, attenuation of M1 phenotype, and suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome in a CPZ-induced demyelination model of MS.

    This study below shows that luteolin is the strongest phytoestrogen that inhibits the breakdown of progesterone in the liver. A phytoestrogen is a plant-derived hormonally-active compound known to cause varied reproductive, immunosuppressive and behavioral effects in vertebrates. Other research shows that luteolin is the most powerful aromatase inhibitor by inhibiting the synthesis of aromatase, plus luteolin was the best estradiol inhibitor. It inhibiits estradiol synthesis. Luteolin may increase progesterone levels as kaempferol increases progesterone levels in the body. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on the reduction of progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in rat liver. The first aim of this study is to characterize the reduction of progesterone in rat liver. Progesterone was mainly reduced to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the cytosolic fraction of rat liver. The amount of 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone formed from progesterone in the cytosolic fraction was significantly larger in the males than in the females and this enzyme reaction proceeded not only in the presence of NADPH, but also in the presence of NADH. Furthermore, we attempted to evaluate the inhibitory effects of 15 flavonoids on the NADPH-dependent reduction of progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in liver cytosol of male rats. The order of the inhibitory potencies was luteolin>apigenin>quercetin>myricetin=fisetin=kaempferol. Other flavonoids exhibited lower inhibitory potencies. Energy-minimized molecular models demonstrated that a planar benzopyrone ring (A and C rings) with a coplanar phenyl ring (B ring) is a structural characteristic determining the inhibitory effects of flavonoids other than isoflavones.

    This study below shows that catalpol jumpstarts and promotes adrenal/corticol hormone production and rebalances estrogen and progesterone levels. failure-resistant effects of catalpol in aged female rats. Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside obtained from various natural sources, has many biological functions. However, its ovarian failure-resistant effect has scarcely been studied. The present study used senile 14-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats to examine the in vivo ovarian failure-resistant activity of catalpol. Daily oral graded doses of catalpol (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks significantly increased the levels of serum 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) but reduced follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. Electron microscopic analysis and flow cytometry showed that catalpol significantly retarded apoptosis of the ovarian granulocytes of the rats. These findings suggest that catalpol works on the sex organs by nourishing ovarian tissues and improving both the quality and quantity of follicles, thus leading to rebalanced E2 and P4 levels in aged rats so that catalpol has a direct in vivo antiaging effect on the rat ovarian system.

  • bobcanberra

    Not sure why this has been mentioned in this article.

    Fecal Matter Transplants (FMT) seems to be very important in the curing or halting of MS.

    Multiple sclerosis

    An infectious cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been speculated, though the potential for gastrointestinal pathogens to exert neurological effects remotely (as seen with many Clostridium species) has not been considered likely. In 2011, Borody et al.[38] reported three wheelchair-bound patients with MS treated with FMT for constipation. Bowel symptoms resolved following FMT; however, in all cases, there was also a progressive and dramatic improvement in neurological symptoms, with all three patients regaining the ability to walk unassisted. Two of the patients with prior indwelling urinary catheters experienced restoration of urinary function. In one patient of the three, follow-up MRI 15 years after FMT showed a halting of disease progression and ‘no evidence of active disease’.

  • carol close “Effect of catalpol on remyelination through experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis acting to promote Olig1 and Olig2 expressions in mice.”
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) as an autoimmune disorder is a common disease occurring in central nervous system (CNS) and the remyelination plays a pivotal role in the alleviating neurological impairment in the MS. Catalpol, an effective component extracted from the Chinese herb Radix Rehmanniae, which has been proved protective in cerebral diseases. Results:The results showed that Catalpol improved neurological function, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination. It could decrease Th17 cells in the peripheral blood. It increased the protein expressions of NG2 and MBP in mice brains, up-regulated markedly protein and gene expressions of Olig1 and Olig2 in terms of timing, site and targets. Conclusions:These data demonstrated that Catalpol had a strong neuroprotective effect on EAE mice. Catalpol also plays a role in remyelination by promoting the expressions of Olig1 and Olig2 transcription factors.

  • carol close

      A low histamine diet stops inflammation.
    A low histamine diet is eating everything absolutely fresh or frozen….. fruits and vegetables, fresh protein, and not eating aged foods like alcohol, vinegar, aged cheeses, aged yeasts in breads, aged meats, canned food, coffee, etc.   A low histamine diet does not cause leaky gut or promote inflammation throughout the body. In fact, inflammation throughout the body can be mediated by the gut bacteria, and loss of gut bacterial diversity can threaten the gut lining, so then that leakiness of the gut, or intestinal permeability, then mechanistically leads to inflammation. Bacteria from the gut leaks into the bloodstream causing inflammation. Then where does that inflammation go and what part of the body gets damaged from it? Inflammation is the cornerstone of basically every degenerative condition you don’t want to get.  Also, you need prebiotics like raw onions, raw asparagus, garlic, jicama, bananas, etc. to keep feeding and nourishing your probiotics in your gut.  Gelatin, bone broth,  low lectin, and no alcohol heals leaky gut.
           Booze causes leaky gut.
    As little as 3 glasses of booze can cause leaky gut. “Single episode of binge drinking linked to gut leakage and immune system effects” “Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences”
           The Wahl Protocol is a low histamine diet.
    The Terry Wahl Protocol is essentially a low histamine diet which reduces mast cell activation in allergies, but, recently also a low histamine diet was also found to reduce mast cell activation in autoimmune diseases as well.   Mast cells are important in the innate immune system. Mast cells have been appreciated as potent contributors to allergic reaction. However, increasing evidence implicates the important role of mast cells in autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. “Mast Cell and Autoimmune Diseases.”
           Luteolin as a possible Multiple Sclerosis cure. “Luteolin as a therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis.”  Luteolin inhibits mast cells, as well as mast cell-dependent T cell activation, recently implicated in MS pathogenesis. Moreover, luteolin and structurally similar flavonoids can inhibit experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.  (Most likely this is the reason that the Wahl Protocol works is because lots of  greens and vegetables also increase luteolin levels.)
       Autoimmune diseases have high tryptase levels, so lower tryptase levels with colostrum  supplement.
    Also- High tryptase levels are found in autoimmune disease (google your autoimmune disease and tryptase),  as well as high tryptase levels are also high in allergies. Hgh tryptase levels can be lowered with lactoferrin found in colostrum. “Elevated mast cell tryptase in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients.” “Lactoferrin, a Potent Tryptase Inhibitor, Abolishes Late-Phase Airway Responses in Allergic Sheep.”
           Mast cells have hormone receptors. “Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behavior.”
           Multiple Sclerosis patients need hormones normalized with bioidentical hormones.
    So hormones need to be tested in people with autoimmune diseases and hormone levels need to be normalized with bioidentical hormones, not synthetic hormones. Synthetic hormones do not match up with our hormone receptors in our body which are specific for real or bioidentical hormones, plus synthetic hormones do not activate the dopanergic and serotonergic pathways important to avoid neurodegeneration, (plus synthetic hormones do not activate he p53 cancer tumor suppressor gene or inhibit mTOR like real or bioidentical hormones.  Synthetic hormones should actually be removed from the market by the FDA and birth control pills should be formulated with bioidentical hormones and estriol. Synthetic hormones cause neurodegeneration and cancer.)  Since the 1940s ratios of women with MS compared to men have quadrupled most likely due to birth control with synthetic hormones.  Recent studies have raised questions that the use of hormonal contraceptives may at least partly contribute to the rise in incidence of MS in women. “Multiple sclerosis; a disease of reproductive-aged women and the dilemma involving contraceptive methods.”

  • Lowell Gerber MD

    This series about Multiple Sclerosis is excellent! Thank you!!

    A couple of additional considerations:

    The Membrane Stabilizing Diet as described in the PK Protocol developed by Patricia Kane PhD has been used successfully in many patients with multiple sclerosis:

    This regimen encourages the use of phosphatidylcholine, bioactive oils, short chain fatty acid butyrate, and other nutrients and micro nutrients to restore the cell membrane integrity and function. Therapies directed to demyelinating pathology is included.

    The regimen is individualized by the use of the RBC membrane fatty acid analysis done at Johns Hopkins Kennedy-Krieger Institute Laboratory which can identify the presence of abnormal fatty acids as well as deficiencies and excesses in normally occurring membrane fatty acids.

    Another therapy for multiple sclerosis is that of Vincenzo Simonetti in Italy who has pioneered a protocol using IV ozone with a very good success rate. This has multi-factorial benefits to enhance the immune system, speed healing, and to eliminate pathogens.

    One can imagine that by combining such modalities a synergistic treatment effect could be achieved.
    This theoretical needs to be demonstrated in clinical trials, and remains anecdotal at present.

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