GLP-1 is a hormone that is capable of causing weight loss and some good cognitive effects.
Introduction to GLP-1
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is both a neuropeptide and an incretin.
A neuropeptide is an agent that has effect on nervous system. An incretin is a hormone that reduces glucose levels in blood.
Benefits of GLP-1
1) GLP-1 Benefits Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Balance Blood Glucose
GLP-1 is found to delay the speed of digesting food, or stomach emptying. In this way, GLP-1 reduces the speed of glucose intake, making it easy for body to maintain blood sugar level right after a meal until the next meal. (R)
Fat muscle cells also increase glucose uptake when GLP-1 is increased. (R)
Patents with type 2 diabetes produce low level of GLP-1 and increasing the level of GLP-1 can be a good way to treat type 2 diabetic patients. (R)
A 6 weeks long administration of GLP-1 to type 2 diabetic patients resulted in weight loss, reduction in appetite, slowed stomach emptying, high sensitivity to insulin, and improved beta cells function with no other major side effects. (R)
However, GLP-1 has a very short half-life of about 1.5 minutes, and is rapidly suppressed by an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). (R)
2) GLP-1 Decreases Appetite
GLP-1 influences nervous system to decrease the appetite.
In particular, a study using chocolate milk has shown that GLP-1 reduces the excitement of eating food, anticipatory food reward, which may result in decrease in appetite and motivation toward food. (R)
3) GLP-1 May Help Brain Function
A study on rats has shown that GLP-1R in hippocampus enhanced learning and memory, and also involved in protecting brain from seizures and neuronal damage. (R)
It has been proposed that the protective property of GLP-1 receptor activator may be used to improve patients with brain damage such as Alzheimer disease. (R)
One immediate advantage of GLP-1 is the ability to reduce glucose level in the blood.
In animal models, GLP-1 has anti-depressant effects (R).
Other Effects of GLP-1
Negatives of GLP-1 Activation
GLP-1 can increase the stress response (R).
A study has shown that GLP-1 and GLP-1R may be responsible for stress responses such as increased blood pressure and increased heart rate. This function of GLP-1 may be connected to maintaining the balance of energy usage. (R)
In animal models, GLP-1 has anxiety-inducing effects (R).
How to Increase GLP-1
Sugar (both glucose and fructose) increases GLP-1 as a satiety signal.
The following are my preferred GLP-1 increasers:
I get the most benefits from the first 5 from this list.
- Resistant starch/prebiotics (R, R2) – Hi-maize Resistant Starch
- Butyrate (R)
- Modified Citrus Pectin
- Bile/TGR5 Agonists (R) – also Oleanolic acid/olive leaf, Betulinic acid/chaga.
- Olive oil/Oleic acid/MUFAs (R, R2).
- Cinnamon (R),
- Raw honey -Contains Fructose/Fructans (R, R2)+Glucose (R) – instead of other carbs
- Palatinose (R) – instead of other carbs
- Berry and Citrus
- Chlorogenic acid -very potent (R)
- Olive leaf extract (R)
- Grape Seed Extract (R)
- Berberine (R)
- Resveratrol (R)
Other natural GLP-1 increasers:
- Ginseng (R),
- Alpha-linolenic acid/Flax/Chia (R)
- Inulin/FOS (R),
- Guar Gum (R),
- Whey (R),
- Soy (R),
- Glutamine (R),
- Bitter melon (R),
- Quercetin (R),
- Sucralose/Splenda (R),
- Pea protein,
GLP-1 Activators (Drugs):
DPP-4 Inhibitors (Drugs):
Another way to increase the effectiveness of GLP-1 is by reducing the function of DPP-4.
Dugs may cause asymptomatic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. (R)
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