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GLP-1 is a hormone that is capable of causing weight loss and some good cognitive effects.


Introduction to GLP-1

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is both a neuropeptide and an incretin.

A neuropeptide is an agent that has effect on nervous system.  An incretin is a hormone that reduces glucose levels in blood.

Benefits of GLP-1

1) GLP-1 Benefits Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Balance Blood Glucose

GLP-1 increases insulin and decreases glucagon levels, which will result in decreased blood glucose. (RR)

GLP-1 is found to delay the speed of digesting food, or stomach emptying. In this way, GLP-1 reduces the speed of glucose intake, making it easy for body to maintain blood sugar level right after a meal until the next meal. (R)

GLP-1 receptor activators injected to different animals with diabetes improves the function of insulin producing beta cells and is capable of regenerating these pancreatic cells. (R, R2)

Fat muscle cells also increase glucose uptake when GLP-1 is increased. (R)

Patents with type 2 diabetes produce low level of GLP-1 and increasing the level of GLP-1 can be a good way to treat type 2 diabetic patients. (R)

A 6 weeks long administration of GLP-1 to type 2 diabetic patients resulted in weight loss, reduction in appetite, slowed stomach emptying, high sensitivity to insulin, and improved beta cells function with no other major side effects. (R)

However, GLP-1 has a very short half-life of about 1.5 minutes, and is rapidly suppressed by an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). (R)

2) GLP-1 Decreases Appetite


GLP-1 influences nervous system to decrease the appetite.

A study on fasted rats has shown that GLP-1 produces feeling of satiety, so GLP-1 in hypothalamus reduces the food intake. (R)

In particular, a study using chocolate milk has shown that GLP-1 reduces the excitement of eating food, anticipatory food reward, which may result in decrease in appetite and motivation toward food. (R)

I’ve mentioned GLP-1 in the hormones that cause weight loss.

3) GLP-1 May Help Brain Function


A study on rats has shown that GLP-1R in hippocampus enhanced learning and memory, and also involved in protecting brain from seizures and neuronal damage. (R)

Administration of a GLP-1 activator in patients with Parkinson’s disease showed improvement compared to control patients. Side effects were weight loss and nausea. (R)

It has been proposed that the protective property of GLP-1 receptor activator may be used to improve patients with brain damage such as Alzheimer disease. (R)

One immediate advantage of GLP-1 is the ability to reduce glucose level in the blood.

In animal models, GLP-1 has anti-depressant effects (R).

GLP-1 activates orexin, which increases wakefulness.

Other Effects of GLP-1

GLP-1 causes:

  • Heart protection (R)
  • Vasodilation (R)
  • Excretion of sodium (R)

Negatives of GLP-1 Activation

Side effects of GLP-1 activators are weight loss and nausea. (R)

GLP-1 can increase the stress response (R).

A study has shown that GLP-1 and GLP-1R may be responsible for stress responses such as increased blood pressure and increased heart rate. This function of GLP-1 may be connected to maintaining the balance of energy usage. (R)

In animal models, GLP-1 has anxiety-inducing effects (R).

How to Increase GLP-1


Sugar (both glucose and fructose) increases GLP-1 as a satiety signal.

The following are my preferred GLP-1 increasers:

I get the most benefits from the first 5 from this list.

  1. Resistant starch/prebiotics (R, R2) – Hi-maize Resistant Starch
  2. Butyrate (R)
  3. Modified Citrus Pectin
  4. Arabinogalactan
  5. Bile/TGR5 Agonists (R) – also Oleanolic acid/olive leaf, Betulinic acid/chaga.
  6. Olive oil/Oleic acid/MUFAs (R, R2).
  7. Cinnamon (R),
  8. Raw honey -Contains Fructose/Fructans (R, R2)+Glucose (R) – instead of other carbs
  9. Palatinose (R) – instead of other carbs
  10. Berry and Citrus
  11. Chlorogenic acid -very potent (R)
  12. Olive leaf extract (R)
  13. Grape Seed Extract  (R)
  14. Berberine  (R)
  15. Resveratrol (R)

Other natural GLP-1 increasers:

GLP-1 Activators (Drugs):

  • Exenatide (Byetta) (R)
  • Liraglutide (Victoza) (R)

DPP-4 Inhibitors (Drugs):

Another way to increase the effectiveness of GLP-1 is by reducing the function of DPP-4.

  • Sitagliptin (Januvia) (R)
  • Saxagliptin (Onglyza) (R)
  • Linagliptin (Tradjenta) (R)

Dugs may cause asymptomatic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. (R)

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  • Jobe

    Get her chromium levels checked. Look at this: “Blackmores Sugar Balance”

    Of course check with the doctor first, there may be interactions. Also, don’t forget to examine probiotics and get her B levels checked. A multivitamin may be all she needs.

  • Sylvia

    Where can I get this ?

  • whisperingsage

    Thanks for the info on glp 1. After seeing a better description of things it does (extending digestion time) maybe I don’t want to increase mine. I already take 6 hours or more to empty my stomach. And I’m still fat. I’m also on some if the supplements that are on the list so, I’ll keep looking. I also already don’t have a string appetite, all related to my ulcer I suppose.

  • whisperingsage

    You are confusing me. If you can’t have ” any” animal protein or carbs, but must eat apples and soy, you know those are carbs, right? Also please look up the article ” the Ploy of Soy” by Sally Fallon on the Weston website. I fell for the hype of soy and fed my livestock supplemental soy for two years and it was disastrous. Rabbits went permanently infertile, goats had infertility, poor skeletal development in the offspring, rickettslike symptoms in the adults, premature births, false labor, various digestive issues, etc. So is very high in estrogen, and trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid. And I don’t know at the time if it was GMO or not, but 99% of soy is GMO today so the problems may be worse now.

  • Francisco

    My mother wants to try GLP-1 for weight loss, appetite control, and sugar control. But at age 86, I’m leery of the possible side effects, especially since she takes meds for high blood pressure. Any suggestions?

  • Fabio

    Hi. Your blog is a must. Thanks. I suffer with obesity my entire life. I lost weight so many times I can’t remember exactly. I gain weight very quickly. Doctors said I don’t have thyroid problems. I believe I have CFS and I found some supplements to diminish the tiredness feeling for some time ( ATP peak swanson, carnosine, PQQ carnitine and vitamins and minerals). I need a very restricted diet with soy and apples, and Bupropion to hold my appetite in control. I can’t eat any carbs, animal protein (whey exception), etc. The strange thing is most of the products of the list that increases GLP-1 make me lose control of appetite like Resistant starch, butyrate, olive oil, olive leaf, Grape Seed Extract, Resveratrol, Glutamine, as well ATP from swanson, and b12 (methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin is an exception). Seems that anything that raises my metabolic rate and REALLY make me feel more energy make me lose control of my appetite. I’m from Brazil unfortunately it’s hard to find a doctor here that take CFS or rare genetic disfunctions seriously and I don’t have the money to do genetic tests. Other strange thing is that micro pulse ICES gives me insomnia. I read an interview of a Dr. that said it’s rare but some people don’t produce leptin, this could be my problem? Any suggestion?

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