Print Friendly, PDF & Email

A Primer On How The Immune System Works

I wanted a post that I can constantly update as I find good videos and images on the immune system, so keep checking back.

Inflammation” and oxidative stress are the main causes of disease, but inflammation is the main driver for oxidative stress, which makes it the most important factor.

The immune system is involved in practically every disease that I can think of.  This is why I discuss some aspect of it in every post.

Be forewarned that the immune system is highly complex and this is probably why people talk about “inflammation” instead of actually explaining what that means.  The problem is the word inflammation doesn’t tell you too much.

I like to talk about the specifics sometimes because the specifics do matter here.   So to understand what I’m saying, it’s a good idea to watch some of these videos when you get the chance.

A client recently sent me an article from Ray Peat, where he mentions that PUFA’s are bad because they cause immunodeficiency.  It is true that they suppress the immune system to a degree , though I wouldn’t call it “immunodeficiency.”  But if you look at it another way, suppressing the immune system means that they decrease inflammation and all of a sudden that becomes a good thing.

Also, people praise supplements that are immune boosters and in the same breath talk about how these same supplements decrease inflammation.  This is to a large degree contradictory (though not completely).  In any case, immune systems need to be balanced and not necessarily boosted or suppressed.  Whether your immune system needs to be amped up or toned down depends on your genetics, etc..

This is why it’s important to understand in more detail how the immune system is working.  Generalizations just won’t cut it.   I don’t expect you to learn about the immune system completely, but being even a little familiar with some terms can help you make better choices in the long term.  It’s a worthwhile investment in my opinion.

Interesting video

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Focuses more on Th1/Th2 immune system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gut Immune System

 

 

Khan Academy Playlist.  I usually list to videos in 1.5-2X playback, but khan I always listen to at 2X.

 

 

George Carlin had a good immune system.  Judging by his heart problems, he also had quite a bit of inflammation. Carlin had a history of cardiac problems spanning several decades. These included three heart attacks (in 1978 at age 41, 1982 and 1991), an arrhythmia in 2003, and a significant episode of heart failure in late 2005 [R].  He lived to 71. He’s crazy.  It’s smart to be exposed to germs growing up, but not after 25 when your immune system is more developed.  I agree with the four key areas to wash: armpits, butt, crotch, and teeth.

 

 

Images

T

The Cancer Autoimmune Trade-off

In the research, it is known that cancer and autoimmune conditions oppose each other in many ways, so the more likely you are to get cancer the less likely you are to have autoimmune conditions, though there are many exceptions. Here’s a simple diagram demonstrating one reason why this is so.

Most Common Terms Used On This Blog

Cytokines.  These are proteins that function as messengers and secreted by the cells of the immune system that stimulate (and occasionally suppress) the growth, maturation, and functioning of the cells of the immune system. Cytokines interact with the hormonal system.

Endocrine – Refers to hormones.

Endothelium- is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood (and lymphatic) vessels.  Imagine the inside of your veins.  The surface of that is the endothelium.  It’s composed of endothelial cells (obviously).

Interleukins (IL)– cytokines produced by leukocytes AKA white blood cells and that act on other leukocytes.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1).  Acts on endothelial cells to increase expression of adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1).  Stimulates production of neutrophils and platelets by the bone marrow.  Cause fever, lethargy, malaise, and lack of appetite.  Acts on thermoregulatory center in the anterior hypothalamus, resulting in prostaglandin-induced (PGE2) fever.  Initiates metabolic wasting (mobilization of amino acids from muscle)

IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra).  Serves to prevent excessive IL-1 driven inflammatory response.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6).  Promotes IL-2 and IL-2R production and T cell differentiation.  Promotes differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and antibody production.  Stimulation of hematopoiesis (creation of new cells)

Cell Receptors – A protein on a cell membrane. Hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors bind to receptors and cause changes within that cell.  A cell may have up to 1000 receptors.

IL-6

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) – A protein that is produced when there is tissue damage or acute inflammation.   This happens when there is a spike in interleukins (IL1IL6, and IL8) and TNFα.  CRP can return to normal relatively quickly (half-life of 6-8 hours).

Chemokines – Cytokines that attract white blood cells to sites of infection. Involved in the migration of leukocytes/white blood cells (especially phagocytes and lymphocytes) from the blood to tissues and activation of leukocytes.  Is induced by pathogens and by proinflammatory cytokines, principally TNF-alpha and IL-1. Aids in the traffic of lymphocytes through the organs in the absence of inflammation.

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).  Increases adhesion molecules and chemokines (eg. CXCL8) on vascular endothelium. Activates neutrophils and macrophages, enhancing their microbicidal activities. Causes fever.  Stimulates endothelial cell expression of tissue factor, a potent activator of coagulation.  Thrombosis (blockage forms) of tumor blood vessels accounts for its tumor killing activity.  Characterized by wasting of muscles and fat cell due to prolonged production or high concentrations of this proinflammatory cytokine.

Less Common Terms Used On This Blog

Autocrine.  Whenever the substance that is released by a cell affects that cell.

Paracrine.  Whenever a substance released by a cell has an action on another nearby cell.  They travel short distances.

Lymphokines – cytokines primarily produced by lymphocytes.

Monokines – cytokines primarily produced by monocytes and macrophages.

RANTES/CCL5Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted.   A Chemokine that attracts T cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. With the help of particular cytokines(i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) that are released by T cells, CCL5 also induces the proliferation and activation of certain natural-killer (NK) cells to form CHAK (CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells.

Virokines – secreted viral proteins that mimic host cytokines. Epstein-Barr virus encodes a homolog of IL-10

Health Tools I Wish I Had When I Was Sick

At SelfHacked, it’s our goal to offer our readers all the tools possible to get optimally healthy. When I was struggling with chronic health issues I felt stuck because I didn’t have any tools to help me get better. I had to spend literally thousands of hours trying to read through studies on pubmed to figure out how the body worked and how to fix it.

That’s why I decided to create tools that will help others cut down the guesswork:

  • Lab Test Analyzer – a software tool that will analyze your labs and tell you what the optimal values are for each marker — as well as provide you with actionable tips and personalized health and lifestyle recommendations to help you get there.
  • SelfDecode – a software tool that will help you analyze your genetic data from companies such as 23andme and ancestry. You will learn how your health is being impacted by your genes, and how to use this knowledge to your advantage.
  • SelfHacked Secrets – an ebook where we examine and explain the biggest overlooked environmental factors that cause disease. This ebook is a great place to start your journey if you want to learn the essential steps to optimizing your health.
  • SelfHacked Elimination Diet course – a video course that will help you figure out which diet works best for you
  • Selfhacked Inflammation course – a video course on inflammation and how to bring it down
  • Biohacking insomnia – an ebook on how to get great sleep
  • Lectin Avoidance Cookbook – an e-cookbook for people with food sensitivities
  • BrainGauge – a device that detects subtle brain changes and allows you to test what’s working for you
  • SelfHacked VIP – an area where you can ask me (Joe) questions about health topics

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

HOW WOULD YOU RATE THIS ARTICLE?

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (3 votes, average: 3.67 out of 5)
Loading...
TWEET
0

1 COMMENT

  • FC

    Would be good if you could make a post about ICAM-1, sICAM-1 and other adhesion molecules. ICAM-1 is inflammatory transport molecule used by 90% of rhinoviruses to get inside the healthy cell.
    Rhinoviruses are the main cause of respiratory infections in colds and asthma.
    As I understand, the lower ICAM-1, the smaller spread of viral cellular infections, but the higher ICAM-1, the greater the transport of immune cells to already infected cells.
    This suggests that low inflammation/low ICAM-1 is better viral immunity that do not causu negative inflammation symptoms of the disease. But perhaps also less resistance to bacterial infection?

    You could lower ICAM-1 by lowering NF-kB which makes a lot of herbs antiviral. Founding those that lower ICAM-1 and rise CD8+(that works universal on many types of influenza) at the same time would make best recommendation for common cold/flu immunity boosters.

    IFN-gamma and IL-1 upregulate ICAM-1.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10812972
    http://www.jbc.org/content/274/14/9707.full
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600561

    “Chemotaxis is the process by which immune cells are recruited to a specific site in the body in response to secreted cytokines and involves the immune cell rolling along the endothelium until it attaches to cellular adhesion factors (E-Selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 being most researched) and is pulled into tissue.[413][414]
    The arachidonic acid metabolite known as Leukotriene B4 is a potent chemoattractant (promoting chemotaxis). There appear to be less chemotaxis associated with fish oil supplementation (omega-3), which reduces the rate at which immune cells (neutrophils and monocytes) can penetrate tissue. This is an immunosuppressive action, since it lowers levels of the immunosupportive omega-6 fatty acid metabolite (Leukotriene B4) and can reduce immunity and inflammation independent of circulating cytokines.”

  • Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

    This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.