Dexedrine is a stimulant drug commonly used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. Dexedrine is also among the most abused substances for focus and energy. Read on to understand more about the side effects, abuse, and medical uses of Dexedrine.

Note: By writing this post, we are not recommending this drug. Some of our readers who were already taking the drug requested that we commission a post on it, and we are simply providing information that is available in the scientific literature. Please discuss your medications with your doctor.

What is Dexedrine?

Dexedrine is the brand name for dextroamphetamine, a drug that stimulates the brain. Like all stimulants, it promotes wakefulness, enhances concentration, and increases energy.

Dexedrine is most commonly used to treat narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and chronic fatigue syndrome [R, R].

Night shift workers use the medication in order to stay awake during their job. Athletes take the drug to boost their athletic ability and combat fatigue. Students take it in hopes of improving studying ability. Others abuse Dexedrine recreationally, to get high [R].

But Dexedrine abuse can have harmful consequences. It can increase blood pressure and cause heart problems, headaches, drug dependence, panic attacks, and suicidal or aggressive behavior [R].

How Dexedrine Works (Mechanisms)

As you can probably guess from its name, the main active ingredient of Dexedrine, dextroamphetamine, is a member of the amphetamine family of drugs.

Amphetamines increase certain neurotransmitters in your brain, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin [R, R].

Amphetamines also reduce levels of monoamine oxidase, which results in an increase in neurotransmitters in the brain [R].

Amphetamines also release adrenaline, which can lead to increased blood pressure and heart rate [R].

While these drugs affect many different systems in the body, amphetamines’ effects on the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine are by far the strongest out of all of them and are the main causes of their stimulating and attention-enhancing effects [R, R, R, R, R].

However, amphetamines’ strong ability to boost dopamine levels can also cause feelings of reward and pleasure (euphoria), which gives these drugs high potential for abuse and can easily lead to addiction if not taken correctly [R].

By increasing serotonin, amphetamines can also alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression, which commonly occur alongside conditions such as ADHD [R, R].

Dexedrine vs. Other Stimulants

Dextroamphetamine is a member of the amphetamine family, making it similar to other common drugs such as Adderall and Vyvanse. However, these drugs work in slightly different ways.

Like your hands and ears, the forms of amphetamine are referred to by whether they are “left-handed” or “right-handed”. Levoamphetamine — also known as the “L-” form — is the “left-handed” version (levo = left), whereas dextroamphetamine — or the “D-” form — is the “right-handed” version (dextro = right) [R].

Even though both of these compounds are technically the “same” drug, their different orientations have different effects on the brain and body [R].

In general, dextroamphetamine is the form with the strongest effects on the brain, and is the primary type used for treating medical conditions such as ADHD and narcolepsy. For example, its effect on dopamine release in the brain is up to 3-5x stronger than that of the L- form [R].

However, scientists later discovered that pairing the D- form with a bit of the L- form can provide additional benefits, such as making the stimulation effects stronger and allowing amphetamine medications to last longer in the body and brain [R].

For these reasons, different stimulant medications often contain different mixtures of these two compounds. Dexedrine contains the “D-” form only, whereas other common ADHD drugs, such as Adderall, contain a mix of both D- and L- forms [R].

Other, newer medications, like Vyvanse, contain specially-designed forms of amphetamine that only become active when processed (metabolized) inside the body after ingestion [R].

Uses of Dexedrine

1) ADHD

People with ADHD have difficulty focusing and staying still. Although it might seem counterintuitive, stimulants like Dexedrine can help people with ADHD regain focus and are the preferred medications for treating this disorder [R, R, R].

The way that stimulants improve the symptoms of ADHD is by increasing activity in the parts of the brain responsible for attention, focus, and motivation [R, R, R].

Dexedrine is commonly prescribed as a treatment of ADHD to both children and adults. Dexedrine helps increase attentional focus in ADHD, as well as reducing impulsiveness and hyperactivity [R].

Dexedrine may have higher rates of negative side-effects compared to other types of ADHD medications, such as modafinil and paroxetine [R].

2) Narcolepsy

Dextroamphetamine is one of the drugs that can be used to treat narcolepsy and other disorders involving excessive sleep [R, R, R].

As stimulants, Dexedrine and other amphetamines promote wakefulness and alertness by increasing levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain [R, R].

Dextroamphetamine was found to reduce feelings of sleepiness by 50% in a study of 169 narcoleptic patients. However, the treated narcoleptic patients still reported more sleepiness compared to healthy people [R].

Although Dexedrine can prevent sudden or excessive sleepiness, narcoleptic patients with other symptoms, such as cataplexy (the sudden loss of muscle control in response to strong emotions), may require additional medications to control their illness, such as antidepressants [R, R].

3) Attention and Focus Issues

Dexedrine increases activity in the different parts of the brain that control attention and focus [R, R].

Dexedrine can enhance performance on tests of attention, resulting in faster response speed and more accurate choices [R].

4) Wakefulness

One of the earliest uses of stimulants was to overcome the effects of sleep deprivation in military personnel, who often work extremely long hours in cognitively-demanding jobs with little or no sleep [R, R].

These drugs’ ability to enhance wakefulness also make them useful in treating a variety of conditions involving excessive sleepiness [R].

Two studies of 18 total people found that dextroamphetamine can enhance alertness after a day of sleep deprivation. Although the drug affected how the subjects slept the following night, it did not negatively impact their mood or cognitive function the next day, and their sleep quality quickly returned to normal [R, R].

However, although Dexedrine was able to help sleep-deprived people maintain focus and energy, the sleep that they got after this period was less restful. Therefore, while there might be short-term benefits to using Dexedrine to stay awake, it has possible long-term drawbacks [R].

5) Depression

Although depression is usually treated with serotonin-based drugs (like selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs), a considerable number of depression patients do not respond fully to these drugs (a condition called treatment-resistant unipolar depression) [R].

In these patients, dopamine-targeting drugs — including dextroamphetamine — are sometimes added or given in place of these serotonin-based medications [R, R].

Two case studies have reported that dextroamphetamine was able to help patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression and postpartum depression who were not helped by other common antidepressants [R, R].

6) Brain Injury

Strokes and traumatic brain injuries are serious conditions which can take several months to recover from and that often leave patients considerably impaired. Brain injury patients also often experience long-term difficulties with cognition and speech.

A few studies looked at the potential of drugs like Dexedrine to temporarily boost cognitive abilities in these patients, thereby aiding in brain injury recovery. A combination of dextroamphetamine and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) treatment improved language and speech abilities in a RCT of 10 stroke patients [R].

However, in another RCT, dextroamphetamine did not enhance brain injury recovery in 32 traumatic brain injury patients [R].

Dexedrine Misuse and Abuse

Because Dexedrine is an amphetamine, the increase in dopamine levels caused by taking it can produce positive feelings or euphoria, in many people, meaning it has a high potential for abuse. Thus, all amphetamines are considered class II drugs and are only legally available via prescription [R, R].

In some cases, people who abuse amphetamines will snort or inject the drugs. These methods are dangerous and are strongly advised against [R, R].

Some people misuse amphetamines for other purposes, such as to suppress their appetite and aid in weight loss, to boost their athletic performance, or to help them study or work for longer hours. Those who misused prescribed stimulants were also more likely to be abusing other drugs [R, R].

Nonetheless, in general, abuse is generally rare among people who take prescription amphetamine for medical purposes — most abusers are recreational drug users who obtain the drug illegally [R, R].

Between 2005 and 2010, visits to the emergency room due to stimulant use have more than doubled. Recreational users also often combine Dexedrine with alcohol and other drugs, which can lead to serious side effects and can potentially be fatal [R, R].

Physical signs of stimulant abuse include [R]:

  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Drug cravings
  • Irregular sweating
  • Increased heartbeat
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Severe weight loss
  • Tics

Emotional or mental signs include [R]:

  • Anxiety
  • Feelings of invincibility
  • Mood swings
  • Loss of interest in activities
  • Restlessness
  • Depression

Dexedrine Addiction

Because amphetamines cause the release of dopamine — the main neurotransmitter involved in the brain’s reward system — these drugs can be highly “reinforcing,” meaning that using them can easily lead to addiction [R].

Prolonged abuse can cause the brain to become unable to function normally without the drug. This causes dependence, resulting in a cycle of increasing abuse [R].

Tolerance

Long-term use of amphetamines can also cause tolerance, which is when the brain adapts to the presence of the drug and becomes less sensitive to it over time. This causes the user to require higher and higher doses of the drug to achieve the same effect [R, R].

It is important to note that tolerance can occur both through abuse as well as regular medical use. Nonetheless, it is more common as a result of abuse, where drug dosage is less controlled [R].

Tolerance can also increase the likelihood of overdosing [R].

Overdose

Overdosing on Dexedrine can be very dangerous and can result in a number of symptoms including [R, R]:

  • Aggression
  • Agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Coma

  • Confusion

  • Death

  • Feverishness
  • Hallucinations
  • Paranoia
  • Rapid breathing
  • Seizures
  • Tremors

  • Twitchiness
  • Uncontrollable or exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia)

In a hospital setting, overdoses can be treated with benzodiazepines or antipsychotics, which can counteract the negative effects long enough to stabilize the patient. Because of this, overdoses are rarely fatal if the person seeks immediate medical care [R].

Withdrawal

Withdrawal occurs when there is a quick decrease or halt in the amount of the drug in the body after continued long-term use. This can occur when stopping prescribed use, abuse, or even after frequent recreational use [R].

Withdrawal from amphetamines often involves intense withdrawal symptoms. In fact, this process is so unpleasant that avoiding the withdrawal process is one of the primary reasons people who abuse these drugs continue to stay addicted [R].

The symptoms and severity of withdrawal can depend on the dosage a person is used to and may include [R, R]:

  • Apathy/lack of pleasure (anhedonia)
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Drug cravings
  • Fatigue

Going through withdrawal can also make certain people prone to aggressive and violent behaviors. This can be especially difficult to prevent when a person attempts to detox from the drug without medical supervision [R, R].

There is currently no FDA-approved medication for treating stimulant dependence, although some drugs are being studied for this purpose. Several of these include non-amphetamine drugs with either stimulant-like effects (such as modafinil) or which target the dopamine system (such as bupropion, a dopamine-based antidepressant). Temporarily using these drugs could allow users to feel relatively normal while detoxing, thereby improving their chances of making it through the withdrawal phase without relapsing into using amphetamines again [R].

Dexedrine Side Effects

Dexedrine, like many amphetamines, can cause a variety of unwanted side-effects, even when the drug is used legally for legitimate medical purposes.

The potential side-effects vary according to dosage and length of treatment, and may include [R, R, R, R, R, R]:

  • Anxiety [R]
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Excessive sweating
  • High or low blood pressure
  • Increased heart rate (tachycardia)
  • Irregular heart rate
  • Insomnia
  • Loss of appetite/weight loss/anorexia
  • Muscle spasms/tics
  • Nausea
  • Psychotic symptoms (such as hallucinations and mania)
  • Stomach cramps/pain
  • Stunted growth in children (potentially) [R, R]
  • Vomiting

Cardiovascular Effects:

Although they are relatively rare in people without a pre-existing heart condition, cardiovascular side effects can occur and can be fatal for patients with existing heart problems or abnormalities. Tests and screening are recommended before starting Dexedrine or other stimulants [R, R].

Dexedrine and Pregnancy

It is unknown whether taking amphetamines during pregnancy can potentially harm a developing child. Although a few animal studies have reported decreased birth weight and premature births, a lack of human trials makes it difficult to come to any conclusions about its safety during pregnancy [R].

Dexedrine and Breastfeeding

When taken by nursing mothers, Dexedrine does not appear to have negative effects on breastfeeding children. However, some studies have suggested that Dexedrine may interfere with the ability to produce breast milk, especially at high dosages [R].

Contraindications

Dexedrine should not be used in people with [R, R]:

  • Agitation
  • Allergies to stimulant medication
  • Glaucoma
  • Heart disease
  • History of drug abuse or addiction
  • Moderate to severe high blood pressure
  • Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
  • Severe anxiety
  • Taking antidepressant medication such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Tics (though rare, it can worsen tics)

Drug Interactions:

Acids

Acids, such as certain foods or fruit juices and medications such as methenamine, reduce the efficacy of amphetamines [R].

Bases

These drugs can increase absorption and thus, the effect, of amphetamines. Drugs of this category include acetazolamide, certain thiazides, and common items like sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) [R].

Alcohol and Other Sedatives

About 20% of emergency room visits for amphetamine abuse also involved mixing stimulant medications with alcohol. Alcohol in combination with Dexedrine is dangerous for the heart, blood vessels, and mental state. It can cause side effects such as [R, R, R]:

  • Chest pains
  • Headaches
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure

Antidepressants

Several types of antidepressant medication including monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not be combined with Dexedrine, as that can result in very high blood pressure, internal bleeding, stroke [R, R].

Antihistamines

Amphetamines can counteract antihistamines’ sedative effects [R].

Antipsychotics

Chlorpromazine and haloperidol work by blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and therefore can inhibit amphetamines [R].

Anti-Seizure Medications

Amphetamines can delay absorption of ethosuximide and phenytoin, anti-seizure medications as well as phenobarbital, a medication for epilepsy [R].

Blood-Pressure Medication

Adrenergic blockers, also known as beta blockers, are inhibited by amphetamines. Veratrum alkaloids are also inhibited by amphetamines. However, norepinephrine’s effect may be enhanced by amphetamines [R].

Bipolar Medication

Lithium carbonate, a type of bipolar medication, treats and prevents manic episodes and can inhibit amphetamines [R].

Caffeine

Combining caffeine with Dexedrine may additionally trigger or worsen heart problems [R].

Pain Medication

Certain pain medications, such as meperidine, can have a synergistic effect with amphetamines. Propoxyphene and amphetamines used together can be fatal [R].

Sympathomimetics (Stimulants)

Sympathomimetics are drugs that mimic the activation of the heart and increase heart rate. The combination of Dexedrine and other amphetamines, such as this, can lead to overdose [R, R].

Limitations and Caveats

Although Dexedrine has mostly been found to be safe, there is a general lack of studies on the potential long-term effects of amphetamines. The few studies that have been done have reported mixed findings, making it had to draw any conclusions about the long-term safety of amphetamines [R].

Dexedrine Dosage

The effects of dextroamphetamine reach their maximum strength at about 45 minutes. The dosage depends on the issue being treated and starts at the lowest recommended dosage and is increased gradually until achieving the desired response [R, R].

For narcolepsy:

  • 5 mg/day for children aged 6-12
  • 10 mg/day for children aged 12-18
  • 5-60 mg/day for adults

For ADHD:

  • 2.5 mg/day for children aged 3-5
  • 5 mg/day for children aged 6-18
  • 5-40 mg/day for adults

User Experiences

Some users have had a positive experience with Dexedrine, such as:

  • Increased energy and focus
  • Reduced anxiety and anger, compared to Adderall and Ritalin
  • Improvement of bipolar disorder
  • A more regular sleeping pattern for those with narcolepsy

Others experienced side effects and health disturbances, such as:

  • Reduced appetite
  • Severe weight loss
  • Reduced amount of fertile sperm
  • Tolerance

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

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