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Klotho increased intelligence by as much as 3% or 6 point IQ boost (R).
Klotho diminishes age-related heart disease (R).
Klotho significantly enhances our antioxidant balance (specifically the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx) system with the greatest effect on the induction of Prx-2) (R).
Mouse Studies on Klotho
Mice bred for higher levels of Kloth0:
- Better memory, indicated by more long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity (R)
Mice bred to have lower levels of Klotho experience:
- Early postnatal death (R)
- Less myelination (R)
- Synapse shrinkage (R)
- Cognitive impairment (R)
- Infertility (R)
- Osteoporosis (R)
- Accelerated aging (R)
- Heart disease (R)
- Impaired vessel Nitric Oxide, less vasodilation and angiogenesis (R)
- Increased production of Calcitriol/Active vitamin D and higher blood calcium and phosphorous, which might be the cause of premature aging in one study (R).
- Increased ADH and Aldosterone (R). One study says that excessive formation of Calcitriol in Klotho-deficient mice results in volume depletion outside cells, which contributes significantly to the shortening of life span (R).
How to Increase Klotho
- Exercise – in both humans and mice (R)….Klotho only increases post exercise in people who completed a 16-week training program, with younger people having a bigger increase than older people. Based on mouse studies, it’s believed that muscle injury and new muscle cell secrete Klotho (R).
- Calcitriol/Active vitamin D increases Klotho (R, R2). However, Vitamin D supplements apparently don’t work in humans to increase Klotho, even when calcitriol goes up (R). In dialysis patients, vitamin D supplements actually decrease Klotho (R).
- Insulin increases klotho (R). This is one downside to a really low carb diet.
- PPARgamma activators (R, R2)
- Statins/Red yeast rice (HMG -CoA reductase inhibitors) (R, R2) – might simply stabilize some part of the process after its production (R).
- Activated charcoal by binding to a toxin that decreases klotho (Indoxyl sulfate) (R)
- Gentian root extract– might simply stabilize some part of the process after its production (R),
- Probiotics such as Acidophilus + L Lactis in aging mice (R).
- Cordyceps reverses the Angiotensin II decrease klotho (R).
- ACE inhibitors
What Decreases Klotho
The following decrease klotho:
- Psychological stress and depression (R). Women under high chronic stress had low klotho compared with low-stress controls. Depressed people had even lower klotho levels (R).
- Inflammation (R)
- Oxidative stress (such as H2O2) (R)
- Angiotensin II (R)
- Indoxyl sulfate (R), a product of protein degradation (R)
- In dialysis patients, vitamin D supplements decrease Klotho (R)
The most significant Klotho SNP is:
Other Klotho SNPs:
Technical Aspects of Klotho
- Increased total protein levels of the NMDAR subunit GluN2B (R). GluN2B enhances cognition (R, R2, R3) and dysfunction of this sub-unit contributes to Alzheimer’s (R,R2). Klotho elevation nearly doubled GluN2B levels in post-synaptic density (PSD) fractions in the mouse hippocampus (R)
- Suppresses Wnt (R), Regulates ion channel clustering (R) and transport (R), Promotes FGF23 function (R)…….
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