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As one of the 12 factors responsible for blood clotting, fibrinogen is essential for the body’s healing processes that we often take for granted. However, high levels of fibrinogen can be harmful to your health. Keep reading to learn about how fibrinogen can help or hurt the body, and how you can increase or decrease your fibrinogen levels naturally.

Contents

What Is Fibrinogen?

Fibrinogen is a protein produced in the liver that is essential for a variety of processes including blood clot formation, wound healing, inflammation, and blood vessel growth [R, R].

It circulates throughout the bloodstream in concentrations of 2 g/L to 4 g/L, by far the highest concentration of any blood clotting factor. Each protein breaks down after about 6 days in the bloodstream [R].

Fibrinogen is a positive acute phase protein, which means that its production is increased during injury, infection, and inflammation. This is mainly mediated by cytokines (e.g., IL-6) [R, R, R, R].

Roles of Fibrinogen

1) Fibrinogen Creates Blood Clots

Blood clots are extremely important to our health because they stop excessive blood loss and initiate the wound healing process [R].

In the process of coagulation (clotting), protein strands and cell fragments (platelets) combine together to form a hardened clot. This newly formed clot plugs the site of the wound, preventing further bleeding while the blood vessel continues to bend and stretch around the site [R].

Source: [R]

Blood clot formation occurs through a series of steps:

  • During injury, fibrinogen is cut by the enzyme thrombin into fibrin strands [R].
  • Next, enzyme factor XIII (activated by thrombin) cross-links the fibrin strands to create a net that, along with platelets, forms a blood clot [R].
  • The fibrin strands also bind to thrombin to prevent it from cutting up more fibrinogen, thereby inhibiting continuous clot formation [R].
  • Fibrinogen further contributes to clot formation by binding to receptors on the surface of platelets and bridging them together [R, R].

2) Fibrinogen Regulates the Breakdown of Blood Clots

Fibrinogen and its successor fibrin both affect the breakdown of clots (fibrinolysis) [R].

While fibrin activates plasmin (the enzyme that degrades clots), fibrinogen inhibits it. These opposing actions ensure that clots are broken down only after they are no longer needed [R, R].

This activity is significant because clots become detrimental when they block blood vessels, leading to heart attack and stroke [R].

3) Fibrinogen Is Involved in Immune Defense and Healing

Fibrinogen binds to and activates specific white blood cells (U937, THP-1, Mac-1) in mice and the lab, indicating that it plays a role in the immune response to infection or injury [R, R, R, R].

In a gene association study of 631 sepsis patients, genetic mutations that resulted in increased blood fibrinogen levels were correlated with faster recovery and lower mortality [R].

Similarly, a study in mice with acetaminophen-induced liver damage found that fibrinogen enhanced liver repair by activating white blood cells [R].

Normal Fibrinogen Levels

Fibrinogen blood levels vary in the general population and range from 1.5 to 3.5 g/L, with average levels varying by geographical region [R].

Fibrinogen Blood Tests

Common Clotting Tests

These popular tests measure how long it takes blood to clot. Abnormally long times indicate a problem in clot formation, such as low levels of functional fibrinogen [R].

However, these tests measure a number of different protein interactions, so their results do not necessarily correlate with fibrinogen levels, nor are they sensitive to mild fibrinogen deficiency or dysfunction [R].

  • Prothrombin Time (PT) measures the time it takes blood to clot after stimulating it with proteins that are released by damaged cells [R].
    • A normal range for the PT is 10 to 14 seconds [R].
  • Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) measures the time it takes blood to clot after adding a protein called factor XII, which stimulates the internal clotting pathway [R].
    • A normal range for the PTT is 25 to 35 seconds [R].

Fibrinogen-Specific Clotting Tests

  • Thrombin Time (TT) measures the time it takes fibrinogen to be converted into fibrin by adding thrombin. It is sensitive to mild fibrinogen deficiency and dysfunction but is affected by other factors that inhibit thrombin, such as medication [R].
    • A normal range for the TT is 12 to 14 seconds, with longer times indicating a deficiency in properly functioning fibrinogen [R].
  • Reptilase Time (RT) also measures the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin but using snake venom instead of thrombin. It is therefore as sensitive as the Thrombin Time test and not affected by medication [R].
    • A normal range for the RT is 18 to 22 seconds with longer times indicating functional fibrinogen deficiency [R].

Fibrinogen Level Tests

The amount of fibrinogen circulating in the blood is measured indirectly by the two methods described below. Doctors often use these tests together to determine if extended TT or RT times are due to deficiency or dysfunctional fibrinogen [R].

Equal levels of functional and immunological fibrinogen indicate low fibrinogen [R].

More immunological fibrinogen indicates dysfunctional fibrinogen [R].

  • The Clauss Assay (or Functional Fibrinogen Assay) determines the amount of fibrinogen in a sample by comparing the TT of that sample to the TTs of other blood samples with known fibrinogen levels [R].
  • The Fibrinogen Antigen Test (or Immunological Fibrinogen Assay) measures how much fibrinogen is present in the blood by the presence of fibrinogen antibodies [R].

Low Fibrinogen Levels

According to the World Federation of Hemophilia, low fibrinogen blood levels account for about 7% of bleeding disorders worldwide and this is more common in women than men [R].

Causes of Low Fibrinogen

1) Trauma

Acquired hypofibrinogenemia, defined as fibrinogen deficiency developed later in life, is most often caused by excessive blood loss. This is because most of the body’s fibrinogen has been used up to stop the bleeding [R].

Blunt trauma to the liver specifically impaired fibrinogen production in pigs, leading to a decline in fibrinogen levels [R].

2) Medication

Medication used to reduce blood clots, such as streptokinase, urokinase, and tissue plasminogen activators have reduced blood levels of fibrinogen in the lab and human studies [R, R, R].

Urokinase decreased blood fibrinogen levels by an average of 35% in a study of 204 patients with stroke after 24 hours [R].

The anti-seizure (epileptic) drugs valproic acid (meta-analysis of 11 studies, 967 participants) and phenobarbital reduced blood fibrinogen concentrations in humans and animals, but the mechanisms remain unclear [R, R].

In humans, multiple studies have found that some types of chemotherapy can reduce blood fibrinogen levels, likely by inhibiting liver protein production [R, R, R].

A 2-week regime of anabolic steroids reduced blood fibrinogen levels by 22% in a clinical trial of 14 healthy adults [R].

The muscle pain reliever pentoxifylline lowered blood fibrinogen levels in a study of 427 patients with peripheral vascular disease stage 2, likely by inhibiting its production [R, R].

3) Illness

Liver disease can cause low fibrinogen levels by either impairing the body’s ability to produce fibrinogen or over-stimulating the breakdown of clots and consumption of fibrinogen [R, R, R].

Leukemia may reduce fibrinogen levels by promoting clot formation and fibrinogen degradation (surveys of 1,304 patients, 17 patients, and 379 patients). As a result, hypofibrinogenemia (fibrinogen deficiency) may serve as an early marker for leukemia diagnosis [R, R, R].

4) Genetic Disease

Congenital Hypofibrinogenemia

Congenital hypofibrinogenemia is characterized by low blood levels of fibrinogen (between 0.5 and 1.5 g/L) with prolonged clotting times [R].

Caused by either a dominant or recessive mutation, this condition is estimated to affect as many as 1 people per 100. Many of these people present no symptoms, maintaining enough fibrinogen to clot minor injuries (survey of 100 patients; genomic database analysis including approximately 140,000 people) [R, R, R, R].

5) Congenital Afibrinogenemia

Congenital afibrinogenemia is characterized by extremely low blood levels of fibrinogen, (less than 0.1 g/L). Clotting time is unable to be determined because the blood never clots [R].

It is a recessive disease, meaning that both parents must have the genetic mutation for their child to acquire the disorder, which affects approximately 10 people per million in the general population. Afflicted individuals are typically diagnosed as infants (survey of 155 participants; genomic database analysis including approximately 140,000 people) [R, R, R].

6) Fibrinogen Storage Disease

Fibrinogen storage disease is a genetic disorder characterized by low blood levels of fibrinogen as well as a liver disease [R, R, R].

The liver disease is caused by excessive storage of fibrinogen in liver cells and is exclusively associated with dominant mutations in the FGG gene [R, R, R].

The disease typically manifests in childhood and is estimated to affect 1 person per 100 (single case study; genomic database analysis including approximately 140,000 people) [R, R].

Conditions Associated with Low Fibrinogen

Low Fibrinogen Causes Excessive Bleeding and Slow Healing

The most common symptoms of low blood fibrinogen levels are prolonged bleeding and easy bruising, especially after traumatic injury or surgery [R].

Many people also experience longer healing times, spontaneous bruising in their muscles (hematomas), and occasional intestinal bleeding [R, R].

People with very low blood levels of fibrinogen also likely to have spontaneous bleeding, especially around the gums and joints [R].

Low Fibrinogen Causes Pregnancy Complications

Women with low fibrinogen blood levels are more likely to have abnormally heavy menstruation and pregnancy complications, which can lead to miscarriage [R, R, R, R].

Low Fibrinogen Causes Harmful Blood Clots

Paradoxically, people with extremely low fibrinogen levels may actually be more susceptible to free-floating clots that block blood vessels. This may be because fibrinogen is not present to inhibit the formation of these internal clots [R, R, R, R].

Ways to Increase Fibrinogen

1) Fibrinogen Replacement Therapy

Replacing fibrinogen is recommended to prevent and treat excessive bleeding, especially during pregnancy [R, R, R].

Depending on the region, replacement therapy may come in the form of plasma (blood)-derived fibrinogen concentrate of cryoprecipitate (frozen plasma containing high concentrations of fibrinogen) [R, R].

2) Diet

A survey of 1,854 people found that people with elevated blood levels of cholesterol and fatty acids also had high fibrinogen levels, indicating a diet that raises cholesterol may also increase fibrinogen [R].

Furthermore, diets high in iron, sugar, and caffeine were hypothesized to account for the increased fibrinogen levels in 206 Japanese emigrants in Hawaii [R].

Protein, in particular, may be necessary for healthy levels of fibrinogen. Protein-deficient animals have low fibrinogen compared to their properly-nourished counterparts [R].

A study of 16 individuals also found that fibrinogen increased by 20 to 40% directly after the participants drank a protein shake or balanced-meal shake, but not after drinking water [R].

High Fibrinogen Levels

Causes of Elevated Fibrinogen

1) Stress

Multiple studies (158 participants; 636 participants) have found that fibrinogen levels increase immediately after a stressful task [R, R].

In addition, a study with 302 participants determined that people with high cortisol levels also had elevated fibrinogen [R].

This relationship is possibly due to increased production of the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG) by IL-6 [R].

2) Pregnancy

Pregnant women experience elevated levels of fibrinogen, probably to prevent excessive bleeding when giving birth [R, R].

As pregnancy progresses, fibrinogen concentration increases up to three times its normal range and then returns to baseline 4 to 6 weeks after delivery [R, R].

3) Smoking

Multiple studies (9,127 participants; 200 participants; 11,059 participants) have found that smokers and ex-smokers have significantly higher fibrinogen levels than non-smokers (up to 53% more fibrinogen, and up to 11% more, respectively) [R, R, R].

The more a person smokes seems to further increase fibrinogen, and fibrinogen levels do not return to normal until a person has refrained from smoking for 15 years (11,059 participants; 118 participants) [R, R].

Smokers who had diabetes and/or high cholesterol had especially high fibrinogen (200 participants; 118 participants) [R, R].

4) Birth Control

Oral contraceptives increase fibrinogen levels, especially those with high estrogen concentration (randomized crossover study with 28 participants for 16 weeks; survey of 200 women) [R, R, R, R].

Estrogen may elevate fibrinogen by increasing the expression of the FGG gene and production of the protein, as seen in rats [R].

As shown in a study with 194 participants, this effect was compounded in women who smoked while on birth control [R].

5) Genetic Mutations

Multiple studies (895 participants; 1,002 participants; 7,329 participants) estimated that genes account for 34 to 46% of the variation in fibrinogen levels. A number of mutations associated with high fibrinogen levels are discussed below [R, R, R].

The inherited disorder homocystinuria increased blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine (3,216 participants), which lab experiments suggest may inhibit the breakdown of fibrinogen, leading to elevated levels [R, R, R].

6) Age

Multiple studies (9,127 participants; 72 participants; 12 participants; 3,967 participants) have found that older people tend to have higher levels of blood fibrinogen, with concentrations increasing around 0.1-0.2 g/L each decade [R, R, R, R].

7) Cold Temperatures

Cold temperatures increase fibrinogen levels, resulting in chronic elevation during the winter months (2-hour study with 12 participants; yearlong study of 1,002 participants; yearlong study of 24 participants) [R, R, R, R].

8) Diet

Elevated fibrinogen of 206 Japanese emigrants in Hawaii was associated with more iron and sugar consumption. This could implicate the prevalence of meat and high glycemic foods in the Western diet, which is also associated with cardiovascular disease [R].

A survey of 1,854 people found that high fibrinogen was associated with low blood concentrations of minerals and vitamins, such as iron and vitamin B6, as well as high levels cholesterol and fatty acids. This suggests that both under- and overnutrition can increase fibrinogen [R].

A study of 16 individuals also found that fibrinogen increased by 20 to 40% directly after the participants drank a protein shake or balanced-meal shake, but not after drinking water [R].

9) Obesity

Multiple studies (87 participants; 200 participants; 64 participants; 1,342 participants) have found that people who are overweight generally have high fibrinogen [R, R, R, R].

Though a causal relationship has not been proved, the ability of exercise to decrease fibrinogen suggests body fat may determine fibrinogen levels (87 participants; 3,967 participants) [R, R].

Consequences of Elevated Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen Promotes Inflammation

Fibrinogen activates molecules that increase inflammation (IL-8, MCP-1, MMP-9, Mac-1) while inhibiting molecules that would decrease it (PPARα, PPARγ), both in the blood and the brain [R, R, R, R].

Mice with either low fibrinogen levels or mutated fibrinogen that cannot bind to white blood cells have significantly decreased inflammatory responses [R, R].

Certain types of bacteria (Streptococcus) bind to fibrinogen in order to promote inflammation during infection [R].

Therefore, therapies to decrease fibrinogen/white blood cell binding may improve symptoms of common inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and bacterial infection [R, R, R, R].

High Fibrinogen Increases the Risk of Harmful Blood Clots

High fibrinogen is associated with higher rates of heart disease, blood vessel dysfunction, and stroke. By some estimates, high fibrinogen predicts these diseases as well as high blood pressure and smoking [R, R, R, R].

In a study of 1,363 patients, high fibrinogen levels were also associated with a greater risk of developing heart disease within 18 months [R].

Furthermore, a longitudinal study of 158 participants concluded that people with larger fibrinogen spikes due to stress had poor blood vessel health, and therefore a greater risk of heart disease 3 years down the road [R].

Elevated fibrinogen is linked to high cholesterol, particularly the bad (LDL) kind, in people without any history of cardiovascular disease [R, R].

Fibrinogen and its degradation by-products were also found in the plaque and cholesterol that builds up on the walls of blood vessels and can cause blockage [R].

However, lab and animal studies have been unable to confirm if high fibrinogen causes heart disease [R, R, R, R].

High Fibrinogen May Harm the Brain

High fibrinogen levels predict future cognitive decline, as well as the development of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia [R, R].

Fibrinogen may increase brain deterioration in Alzheimer’s disease. Lab and rat experiments found that by binding to the abnormal brain plaque, fibrinogen increased damage to brain cells and blood vessels, while also promoting inflammation [R, R, R, R].

High fibrinogen was also associated with active brain lesions in a case-control study of 58 patients with multiple sclerosis, possibly by disrupting the blood-brain barrier [R].

Fibrinogen also suppressed the brain’s ability to heal itself in lab experiments. It did this by inhibiting the regeneration of brain cells and the protective myelin sheaths that normally cover them [R, R].

High Fibrinogen Is Associated with Diabetes and Its Complications

People with diabetes have higher blood fibrinogen levels [R, R, R].

High fibrinogen is also associated with diabetes along with heart disease, high cholesterol, or diabetic complications such as nerve damage [R, R, R, R].

In a case-control study, 6 diabetic patients had high levels of both fibrinogen and glucagon, the hormone responsible for increasing blood sugar, but normal levels of albumin, a marker of insulin resistance. In other words, elevated fibrinogen may precede and possibly contribute to the development of diabetes [R, R].

High Fibrinogen May Promote Cancerous Tumors

High fibrinogen has been correlated with increased tumor growth, while also predicting poor clinical outcomes for patients with uterine, gastric, and kidney cancer [R, R, R].

Specifically, fibrinogen increased tumor cell adhesion and survival in the lung tumors of mice [R, R].

It seems that the pro-tumor effect of fibrinogen is related to its inflammatory action, as well as inhibition of natural killer cells that typically stop cancerous growth [R, R].

High Fibrinogen Is Associated with High Blood Pressure

People with high blood pressure often also have elevated fibrinogen [R, R].

A longitudinal study of 143 subjects over 3 years found that increased fibrinogen after a stressful task predicted the later development of high blood pressure, while those whose fibrinogen levels remained stable did not develop high blood pressure. For unknown reasons, this effect was found exclusively in women [R].

Ways to Decrease Fibrinogen

1) Cholesterol Medication and Diet

A meta-analysis of 22 trials and 2,762 participants found that fibrate cholesterol medication most effectively reduces fibrinogen compared to statins [R].

Specifically, bezafibrate lowered fibrinogen levels by an average of 40% in 2 double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials with 50 and 100 participants [R, R].

Foods that improve bad (LDL) cholesterol may also decrease fibrinogen levels, such as healthy fats and dietary fiber [R].

2) Drugs That Slow Blood Clotting

The anti-platelet drug ticlopidine also reduces fibrinogen concentration by 10 to 25% [R, R, R].

3) Fish Oil

A meta-analysis (3 trials and 159 participants) found that fibrinogen decreased about 10% after supplementing with an average of 2.4 grams per day of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [R].

A double-blind cross-over study of 20 participants found that 6 grams per day of fish oil reduced fibrinogen by 20% after 6 weeks [R].

Another study of 25 participants found that three grams per day of fish oil for 4 weeks reduced fibrinogen blood levels by 3% on average [R].

4) Exercise

Multiple studies have found a correlation between regular exercise and low fibrinogen levels (surveys of 1,284, 2,398, and 3,967 participants, respectively) [R, R, R].

It seems that strenuous exercise, in particular, reduces fibrinogen: 2 studies of 156 (ten weeks) and 8 participants (one week) showed that fibrinogen decreased by 10 to 20% after intense workouts [R, R].

5) Turmeric

Turmeric, a known remedy for inflammation and heart disease, decreased blood fibrinogen levels in a study of 30 subjects. Fibrinogen can also bind to curcumin (the active ingredient in turmeric) so that it does not degrade as quickly in the bloodstream [R, R].

6) Traditional Chinese Medicine

The traditional Chinese medicines Quyu Jiedu, Xuebijing treatment, and XueFu ZhuYu decoction, reduced blood fibrinogen levels in 2 meta-analysis studies (15 RCTs with 1,364 patients; 11 RCTs with 686 patients) evaluating the use of traditional Chinese medicine for high blood pressure and chest pain from heart disease [R, R].

7) Moderate Alcohol Consumption

Multiple studies (117 participants for 1 month; 20 participants for 6 weeks; 11 participants for 12 weeks) have shown that daily moderate alcohol consumption (wine or beer) reduced blood fibrinogen levels [R, R, R].

A glass of red wine a day for 40 days was seen to decrease blood fibrinogen levels by 8 to 15% in a clinical trial of 69 healthy adults [R].

8) Olive Oil

In a double-blind cross-over study, 6 grams of olive oil per day reduced blood fibrinogen levels by an average of 18% in 20 healthy volunteers after 6 weeks [R].

9) Nattokinase (Fermented Soybean)

A study of 12 healthy participants found that a single dose of 2000 nattokinase, an enzyme derived from fermented soybeans, significantly decreased blood fibrinogen levels after only 4 hours [R].

10) Anabolic Steroids

A 2-week regimen of anabolic steroids reduced blood fibrinogen levels by 22% in an experiment with 12 healthy adults [R].

11) Hormone Replacement Therapy

Multiple studies (DB-RCT of 152 women for 1 year; 29 women for 6 months; survey of 4,837 women; survey of 300 women) have found that hormone replacement therapy may help reduce fibrinogen levels in postmenopausal women, though the effect appears to be minimal [R, R, R, R].

12) B Vitamins

B vitamins, especially B6, B9, and B12, enhance the breakdown of fibrinogen by reducing the amino acid homocysteine [R, R].

A study (RCT) of 24 adults found that 5 mg/day of vitamin B9 for 4 weeks reduced blood fibrinogen levels by an average of 9% [R].

A 4-week regime of vitamin B6, B9, and B12 also reduced blood fibrinogen levels in 21 patients with sepsis [R].

Dysfunctional Fibrinogen

Dysfibrinogenemia

Dysfibrinogenemia comprises of cases in which individuals have normal levels of fibrinogen but structural abnormalities that do not allow the molecule to function properly [R].

Approximately 55% of individuals with this disorder are asymptomatic (present no symptoms), while 25% suffer from excessive bleeding, and the remaining 20% have excessive clotting [R].

Other symptoms include delayed wound healing, arterial blood clots, pregnancy complications, and skin necrosis (tissue death) [R, R].

Congenital dysfibrinogenemia is typically autosomally dominant, meaning that only one parent needs to have the gene for their child to inherit the disorder. Afflicted individuals are typically diagnosed as adults, possibly after they have passed it on to their children [R, R].

Because of this and the large percentage of asymptomatic carriers, it is hypothesized to affect 1 person per 100 in the general population [R].

Dysfibrinogenemia is typically caused by inherited mutations, though there have been rare cases of acquired dysfibrinogenemia [R, R].

Congenital Hypodysfibrinogenemia

Congenital hypodysfibrinogenemia includes low levels of fibrinogen as well as structural abnormalities in the molecule that do not allow it properly create clots [R, R].

It is autosomally dominant, and likely more common than afibrinogenemia (extremely low blood fibrinogen) and hypofibrinogenemia(low blood fibrinogen) in the general population [R].

This disorder sometimes coexists with plaque build-up in the kidneys that eventually leads to kidney failure [R].

Hereditary Renal Amyloidosis

Hereditary renal amyloidosis describes the harmful build-up of proteins (amyloid fibrils) in the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure and death [R, R].

Hereditary Renal Amyloidosis is caused by a variety of inherited mutations (including a mutation in fibrinogen’s Aα amino acid chain) [R, R, R].

Limitations and Caveats

So far, we have only been able to identify 3% of the estimated 34 to 46% of the variation in blood fibrinogen levels that are controlled by genes [R, R, R].

Furthermore, most of the causal relationships between fibrinogen concentration and associated diseases remain unclear.

More research is needed to make concrete conclusions about the effects of and effects on fibrinogen.

Drug Interactions

People with low fibrinogen are recommended to avoid aspirin or other blood thinners that will further decrease their ability to form blood clots unless prescribed by a doctor [R].

On the other hand, an anticoagulant such as heparin, aspirin, or Lepirudin is recommended in conjunction with fibrinogen replacement therapy to help reduce the likelihood of an internal blood clot [R].

Fibrinogen Genes

Three different genes than encoding fibrinogen (FGA, FGB, and FGG) are used to produce the three chains that compose fibrinogen, Aα, Bβ, and γ [R].

Common alternative expressions of the FGA and FGG genes result in the functional fibrinogen subtypes AαE and γ’, respectively [R].

FGA SNPs

rs2070006 (T>C) is associated with high blood fibrinogen levels [R].

rs2070011 (T>C) is associated with high blood fibrinogen levels, possibly by increasing interleukin-6 production of the fibrinogen gene [R, R].

rs146387238 (C>A / C>G) is associated with afibrinogenemia (very low blood fibrinogen levels) [R].

rs6050 (G>A) (major allele) is associated with high blood fibrinogen levels, while the minor allele reduces inflammatory response [R, R].

FGB SNPs

rs1800787 (C>T) is associated with low fibrinogen, slow initiation of the coagulation cascade, and possibly childhood pneumonia [R, R, R].

rs1800790 (G>A) (minor allele) is associated with high fibrinogen, as well as reduced inflammatory response and increased risk of heart disease, likely because this sequence affects the production of the entire FGB gene [R, R, R, R].

rs1800791 (G>A) is associated with high blood fibrinogen levels and higher frequency of γ’ [R, R].

rs2227399 (G>T) is associated with high blood fibrinogen levels [R].

rs4220 (G>A) is associated with high blood fibrinogen levels, increased γ’ frequency, and clots resistant to degradation [R, R].

rs4463047 (T>C) is associated with low blood fibrinogen levels [R, R].

rs7439150 (G>A) influences fibrinogen concentration [R, R].

FGG SNPs

rs1049636 (T>C) is associated with higher blood fibrinogen levels with lower γ’ frequency, likely by increasing the production the fibrinogen gene by Il-6 [R, R].

rs148685782 (G>C) is associated with low blood fibrinogen levels and hypofibrinogenemia [R, R].

rs2066865 (C>T) (minor allele) is associated with an increased risk of harmful blood clots [R].

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1 COMMENT

  • Shasha

    Gluten made antibodies to my thyroid so it is low. I only get blood clots when my thyroid medicine is too low. I can get them when I am walking and already take fish oil/Aloe etc. Vit K2 helped more than Serrapeptase which hurt my bones/nail as it lowered Ca. Citrus/apples may help and bromelain in pineapples/enzymes/my pea protein powder and more. I have Factor V Leiden clotting disorder due to gluten.

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