Selenium is a mineral needed in trace amounts for optimal health. It is a key nutrient for a robust immune system, a youthful appearance, and a sharp mind. It is also an essential nutrient in the fight against cancer. Two (Selenium-rich) Brazil nuts a day keeps the doctor away!
- Introduction: What is Selenium
- The Selenium That I Recommend
- Benefits of Selenium
- 1) Selenium Fights Inflammation
- 2) Selenium Helps Regulate the Circadian Rhythm
- 3) Selenium Has Anti-Aging Properties
- 4) Selenium is Important for Thyroid Function
- 5) Selenium May Help Prevent Cancer
- 6) Selenium Helps Immune Defense (especially against viruses)
- 7) Selenium is Good for Th2 Dominant People
- 8) Selenium Aids Fertility and Reproductive Health
- 9) Selenium Improves Mood
- 10) Selenium Increases IGF-1
- Drawbacks of Selenium
- Selenium Toxicity
- Sources of Selenium
- Selenium on SelfDecode
- Buy Selenium
Introduction: What is Selenium
Selenium (Se) is a mineral that exists in poultry, fish, cereal, and eggs. It was considered a toxin until 1957; however, current research shows eating proper amounts of Selenium has many apparent health benefits [R].
Plants take in Selenium from soil; thus, people around the world eat different daily amounts of Selenium depending on the concentration of the mineral in the surrounding geography. Therefore, depending on geography, individuals may suffer from Selenium deficiency [R].
Current scientific research is looking at redefining the recommended values of Selenium.
The Selenium That I Recommend
Benefits of Selenium
There exists a breadth of research on the health benefits of Selenium — from mood to cancer. Moreover, Selenium deficiency is linked to many negative health complications [R].
1) Selenium Fights Inflammation
2) Selenium Helps Regulate the Circadian Rhythm
3) Selenium Has Anti-Aging Properties
Research has long attributed the benefits of fish consumption to polyunsaturated fatty acids; however, the benefits of fish consumption may also be due to the increased Selenium consumption.
Selenium works with the fatty acids to support cognition and prevents the polyunsaturated fatty acids from forming undesirable products.
In a recent study (Prospective cohort), elderly participants (over 69) that had the highest fish consumption and subsequently the highest levels of Selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids had the best cognitive function [R].
There also exists a correlation between low Selenium status and cognitive decline [R].
4) Selenium is Important for Thyroid Function
When the body is deficient in Selenium, it is the thyroid and brain tissues that concentrate the remaining supply.
The thyroid has the highest selenium content per gram of tissue [R].
In a mouse model of autoimmune thyroiditis, Selenium increased T-reg cells and lowered blood levels of thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb).
Also in patients with Hashimoto’s and in pregnant women with anti-TPO antibodies, supplementing with Selenium decreased antibody levels and improved the structure of the thyroid gland as seen through ultrasound.
Those with Graves disease also saw remission more quickly through Selenium supplementation.
In women with low iodine, the lower the blood levels of Selenium, the higher the thyroid volume, a risk of goiter, and risk of thyroid tissue damage [R].
5) Selenium May Help Prevent Cancer
Selenium may help prevent cancer in a multitude of ways. Increased but not toxic levels of Selenium are shown to lessen the risk of colorectal, prostate and lung cancer. Selenium is capable of breaking down cancer cells as well as stopping the cell cycle.
Although there are links between Selenium intake and cancer prevention, the genetics, gender, and age of the patients, along with the stage and type of cancer, affect Selenium’s preventative effectiveness [R].
In America, individuals consume enough Selenium, according to current research, which should decrease the likelihood of cancer.
In another study, Selenium decreased the risk of dying in individuals with skin cancer [R].
Those who were given Selenium compared to placebo in the study had a 50% lower cancer mortality in non-melanoma cancer.
A combination of Milk thistle (Silymarin) and Selenium significantly reduced LDL and total cholesterol in men after they removed their prostate. These markers are risk factors for prostate cancer progression [R].
6) Selenium Helps Immune Defense (especially against viruses)
Lack of Selenium can cause the body to commit an abnormal immune response. Increased Selenium intake allows for the destruction of tumor cells and also aids the body in producing antibodies.
Selenium deficiency is also linked to disease progression in viral infections. In Selenium deficient individuals, harmless viruses can become dangerous. As a result, Selenium deficiency can lead to cardiomyopathy, which makes it hard for the heart to deliver blood to the rest of the body [R].
With sufficient Selenium levels, cellular immunity will be strong and cells will be less likely to die or be damaged.
Having less than ideal Selenium levels causes stress on cells and their cell death activates the virus and allows for the virus to replicate at faster rates.
Selenium also helps fight against HIV by inhibiting the replication of the virus [R].
An individual’s Selenium status can be a predictor of their disease outcome: Patients who are Selenium deficient are almost 20 times more likely to die from HIV related causes than those who have normal values of Selenium.
In children, low values of Selenium not only increase the likelihood of death from HIV, but the disease also spreads faster [R].
7) Selenium is Good for Th2 Dominant People
Selenium supplementation may also help divert immune responses away from the Th2 type associated with allergies and asthma and promote the Th1 type, providing protection against viral infections and cancer [R].
8) Selenium Aids Fertility and Reproductive Health
In animals, Selenium deficiency is correlated with an increased likelihood of miscarriages: females who suffered the first-trimester miscarriage were more likely to have low Selenium levels [R].
Selenium also affects male fertility as Selenium is necessary for the formation and development of sperm [R].
When sub-fertile men were given Selenium supplements for three months, they significantly increased their sperm motility [R].
9) Selenium Improves Mood
Selenium affects the cells of the nervous system, and, thus, affects mood. Neurotransmitters do not turn over as quickly in Selenium deficient individuals.
Low Selenium levels are correlated with depression, anxiety, confusion, and hostility. Supplementing for 5 weeks with 100 mcg of Selenium, lessened anxiety among patients who participated in a clinical trial [R].
Hospitalized elderly, cancer, and/or HIV patients reported less anxiety after Selenium was added to their diets [R].
10) Selenium Increases IGF-1
Drawbacks of Selenium
There exists much evidence to support the health benefits of Selenium; however, Selenium in excess can be dangerous to an individual’s health.
Excess Selenium May Promote Type II Diabetes
Type II diabetes and increased blood sugar are positively correlated with Selenium. Even when factors of gender, weight, and age were controlled for, there existed a correlation between high selenium levels and type II diabetes [R].
However, the relationship between diabetes and Selenium is not simple. Women who suffer from diabetes during pregnancy have lower Selenium concentrations than pregnant women [R].
The mixed results surrounding Selenium and diabetes underscores the fact that excess Selenium, not simply Selenium, promotes diabetes.
Excess Selenium May Lower Active Thyroid Hormone (T3) in Men
Excess Selenium may increase the risk of prostate cancer mortality
Selenium supplementation of 140 or more μg/day after the diagnosis of non-metastatic prostate cancer may increase the risk of prostate cancer mortality [R].
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for Selenium is 400 mcg per day for adults [R].
Some immediate indications of Selenium overdose include digestive and neurological symptoms (including tremors), light-headedness, facial flushing, sore muscles, and difficulty breathing. Some more severe reactions include a heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, and, very rarely, death.
A 2015 review study of lab and population results found that Selenium may be harmful in doses smaller than originally thought [R].
In fact, randomized trials put Selenium’s protective abilities under scrutiny, finding that it did not protect against cancer and other chronic diseases, but rather increased the risk for prostate cancer and skin cancer, in addition to type 2 diabetes [R].
Sources of Selenium
Selenium exists naturally in a variety of foods, but it can also be purchased as a supplement.
This nutrient can be found in nuts (especially Brazil nuts), lamb, fish, poultry, cereal and eggs.
Fish is especially a good means of consuming Selenium because Selenium helps your body process the omega 3’s and iodine, which are also beneficial to health.
I recommend 150-250 mcg from all sources daily. (RDA is 55 mcg). You could take 100 micrograms (mcg) Selenium or a Brazil nut.
I take 100 mcg per a day in supplemental form for the long term.
Individuals should take in at least 40 mcg to avoid becoming deficient [R].
Eating 2 Brazil nuts a day is as effective as 100 micrograms of Selenium for increasing selenium status [R].
Selenium on SelfDecode
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