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Knowing what an important aspect of your immune system does helps guide you to eat or stay away from certain foods and supplements,  and also helps you learn how to exercise. Read on to learn more about Th1 and Th2 dominance and why it’s important to your health.

I’ve experimented with all of the supplements listed below (unless otherwise stated), so I have first-hand experience how these affect a person with Th1 dominance, such as myself.

A More Nuanced Approach in Combating Inflammation

My approach is to combat health issues in every way possible. I use various lifestyle modifications, foods, supplements, devices – you name it.

This new categorization system represents a very significant advancement in healing autoimmune and inflammatory conditions through diet, supplements, and lifestyle.

The truth is, I had been figuring out slowly which supplements boosted my reaction to foods, but this was a slow process, though I made a lot of headway. With this categorization, I can put things into context and help others as well with their issues that are different than mine. This is a sea change.

Are You Th1 or Th2 Dominant?

Th1 and Th2 dominance is an example of one very significant difference in people, and it affects much of the supplement, lifestyle, and diet recommendations for an individual.

Th cells are short for T helper cells. T helper cells are kind of like a symphony conductor. The conductor sends signals to the band and the musicians play the music. T helper cells send signals or more technically release cytokines that guide other immune cells that do the attacking.

It’s important to know if you’re Th1 or Th2 dominant because that will allow you to figure out which course of action to take.

Trying to figure it out based on symptoms or reactions to supplements isn’t always accurate.

Th1 Dominance

Th1 cells are part of what’s called cell-mediated immunity, which is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but does involve the release of various cytokines in response to foreign proteins.

People with Th1 dominance have what’s called a delayed-type hypersensitivity

It’s caused by the overstimulation of immune cells, commonly lymphocytes (Natural killer cells, T cells) and macrophages, resulting in chronic inflammation.

Interferon-gamma (IFNy) is the main cytokine in Th1 dominance. It inhibits the production of most IgG’s and IgE and increases the secretion of IgM [R, R].

Food processing may matter here since cooking may alter proteins/antigens. For example, there are less IgM antibodies to raw peanuts than cooked peanuts [R].

There are also more IgM antibodies to fried chicken, canned tuna and fried salmon [R].

This may be a reason why I get a lot of inflammation from canned tuna, much more so than fresh tuna.

I’m Th1 dominant, which I cured with the lectin avoidance diet.

Th1 dominance is evidenced by:

  • Delayed food sensitivities: This is evidenced by getting inflammation from food, yet the effects aren’t necessarily immediate [R].
  • Brain fog: This is also a symptom of Th2 dominance.
  • Fatigue: After meals and acute exercise or fatigue, in general, is usually more severe in Th1 dominance because Th1 cells increase the cytokine interferon-gamma, which increases other cytokines like IL-1b and TNF-alpha, both of which cause fatigue via suppression of orexin neurons. TNF-alpha can also be elevated in Th2 dominance because it can be released by IL-1 and mast cells, but it’s likely more elevated in Th1 dominance [R, R, R].
  • IBS: People with IBS are more likely to be Th1 dominant (elevated IL-12). Interferon reduces serotonin in the gut and also increases oxidative stress (by activating IDO). However, people with Th2 can also have IBS. [R, R].
  • Rheumatoid arthritis [R]
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (IL-18) [R, R]
  • Low T3 Syndrome: When levels of T3 and/or T4 are at unusual levels, but the thyroid gland does not appear to be dysfunctional. I had this and I’ve seen this in many Th1 dominant clients of mine, who are also relatively thin (likely because of hyperleptinemia). It comes from elevations in IL-6, Interferon gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-1b [R. R. R. R].
  • More likely to be thin: This is a very noticeable observation of mine. The vast majority of Th1 dominant people are relatively thin. It can be explained by 2 mechanisms:
    • 1) TNF-alpha and IL-1beta inhibit orexin, which decreases appetite. TNF-alpha is also a direct fat buster, which leads to insulin resistance in fat cells. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy results in weight gain – an average of 5.5 kg or 11 pounds in only 12 weeks [RR].
    • 2) Interferon-gamma, like TNF-alpha, also creates insulin resistance in fat cells and differentiation of fat cells, which means that it prevents you from getting fat. There are many aspects to hunger and weight gain, so it’s obviously not a perfect correlation [RR].
  • IBD: Characterized by a different cellular subset: Th17 cells and IL-18. This pattern is connected with Th1 dominance [RR].
  • Psoriasis and rosacea [R, R]
  • Celiac disease [R]
  • Crohn’s disease [R]
  • Type 1 diabetes [R]
  • PCOS (IL-18) [R]
  • Alzheimer’s (IL-18) [R, R]
  • Lupus (also Th2) [R]
  • Multiple sclerosis (also Th2) [R]
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome [R]
  • Post-infection IBS [R]
  • Behcet’s [R]
  • Vitiligo (Th1 chemokine) [R]
  • Inflammation after Lyme infection – Lyme disease can elevate the Th1 system initially (but eventually becomes th2 dominant) [R],
  • Inflammation after the following: Strep, mono (EBV), HPV, herpes, pneumonia, H. pylori or Cytomegalovirus. These are common infections that also invoke the Th1 system; in some people with a genetic predisposition like myself, the immune system remains active after these infections. In some environments, this may have been a survival advantage since you’d be more likely to survive into adulthood and bear offspring [RRRRR, R].
  • Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy has increased CCL2 and IFNy, and lower levels of IL-10 [R, R].
  • Low pregnenolone levels – my observations. Every client who was Th1 dominant had low pregnenolone levels. (People with Th2 dominance also likely have low pregnenolone levels).

If you are Th1 dominant, you should click on the link to learn how to rebalance your immune system.

Most people with a balanced immune system just need to eat less, sleep more, be less stressed, exercise, and eat a balanced diet with fish and animal foods and lots of fruits and veggies to be healthy. Sun or supplementing with vitamin D is a good idea, too.

In my consulting practice, I get a lot of people who mention their health issues started after an infection. This is because many common infections increase the Th1 system.

The best way to know if you’re Th1 dominant is to discern if you have trouble with inflammation and food intolerances, yet you don’t display the classical Th2 dominant symptoms. I like to check this by seeing if people are Th2 dominant.

If people don’t display any signs of Th2 dominance and they have an inflammatory condition, Th1 dominance is to be suspected.

Th1 dominance comes from a combination of genetics and environment. The environment is heavily influenced by infections.

Bacterial and most viral infections increase your Th1 system and if you have the wrong genetic cards, it will increase it too much.

People with a Th1 system out of control tend to release more cortisol than the average person because cortisol decreases Th1-related inflammation, so the body activates your HPA system every time you get a Th1 spike to keep things in balance.

Interferon gamma is the major cytokine involved with Th1 dominant people. Chronic, low-grade interferon gamma (Th-1 type inflammation) accelerates aging and could contribute to the onset of major age-related psychiatric conditions (such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, and cognitive impairment) and medical diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, and diabetes). Some research shows that it may also be involved in the development of aggressive tumors [R].

The Benefits of an Elevated Th1 System

There are some benefits of having an elevated Th1 immune system.

For one, people with Th1 dominance tend to get sick much less than others because their immune system is on guard. But if these people are chronically stressed, they will get sick sometimes because cortisol decreases Th1-related inflammation and makes these people more susceptible to infections.

Another benefit is a decreased likelihood of cancer [R].

Th1 cells and cytokines like interferon gamma and TNF scour your body for tumor cells and destroy them. There is a trade-off with cancer and autoimmunity. This is a generalization, as some cancers like multiple myelomas are Th1 dominant [R].

Cancer is relatively rare in my family, but autoimmunity is common. This is because the more active your immune system is the more likely it will destroy cancer cells before they start multiplying out of control. But it’s also the case that it’s more likely to mistake your own tissue as a foreign invader and attack it.

The key is to balance your immune system. Know what kind of dominance you have – if any – and supplement and diet accordingly. Most people have one dominance or another.

Some people have been gifted to have a system that’s in balance and these people don’t have inflammation issues or have cancer, but age usually is the time bomb that messes everything up. As people get older their immune system starts to malfunction and autoimmunity and cancer start to occur.

Regarding the initial occurrence of my own issues, I used to get lots of strep and other infections as a kid. This probably made my Th1 system spiral out of control.

As an adult, I rarely got sick because of this elevation, but as I bring it down I notice I’m getting sick more often.

I had a close call a couple of months ago but dodged the bullet with a bunch of supplements. This time around, I haven’t been as fortunate and got some infection yesterday (not serious).

Keep in mind that you don’t actually have to have an active infection to have elevated Th1 inflammation.

Th2 Dominance

Th2 cells mediate the activation and maintenance of the “humoral,” or antibody-mediated, immune response.

Actually, Th2 dominance is considered an anti-inflammatory profile because people with this profile have lower levels of systemic inflammation. The negative effects of Th2 dominance are probably more benign than people with Th1 dominance.

People with Th2 dominance produce a lot of antibodies and instant food allergies are more likely to occur.

People with Th2 dominance, in general, have a weaker immune system, but they are better at fighting infections that take hold outside of cells (extracellular infections).

The dominant cytokine in Th2 dominance is IL-4, which produces IgG1 and IgE but markedly inhibits IgM, IgG3, IgG2a, and IgG2b [R].

People with Th2 dominance should do a skin scratch test and check blood IgE levels to check for what they’re allergic to.

It’s interesting that one study found food processing has an effect on IgE levels. Raw eggs, raw peanuts, and raw pecans show a lower level of IgE antibodies than cooked eggs, indicating that Th2 dominant people would do better with raw eggs, raw peanuts, and raw pecans, at least in one respect [R].

Th2 cells are produced by IL-2 and IL-4 and they give off IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13 (see picture above).

Th2 dominance is evidenced by:

  • IgE-related allergies, which are immediate and measured by skin scratch tests [R]
  • Seasonal allergies
  • Airway constriction
  • Asthma
  • Nasal drip
  • Mucus
  • Eczema (Dermatitis)
  • Hay fever (Allergic rhinitis)
  • Increased stomach acidity or GERD
  • Excess histamine or what some people call “histamine intolerance”
  • Hives (Urticaria)
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome [R]
  • Autism [R]
  • UveitisGrave’s diseaseSjogren’sOral Lichen PlanusSLE (also Th1 dominant) [R, R, R, R]

If you are Th2 dominant, you should click on the link to learn how to rebalance your immune system.

Types 1, 2, and 3 hypersensitivities are caused by Th2 dominance.

The other effects stem from the main Th2 cytokine, IL-4, and IgE antibodies. They stimulate mast cells to release histamine, serotonin, and leukotriene to cause airway constriction and intestinal peristalsis.

Th2 dominance can be from a parasite or helminth infection, but could also just be genetic.

I had a client with a classic case of Th2-related inflammation that started when he got a parasite in a third-world country. He had no inflammation issues before.

Note that you don’t actually have to have a parasite to have an elevated Th2 related inflammation and it’s likely that most Th2 dominant people don’t have parasites.

It’s fully possible to have both Th1 and Th2 elevations, but usually, one or the other is dominant.

Acute bouts of Th2 immune responses can kill cancer, but chronic elevations increase your risk for some cancers like breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer, to name a few [R].

Getting Help with Your Lab Test Results

If you’re confused by all this information, Lab Test Analyzer is your digital health advisor that helps you understand your lab tests and makes recommendations based on your results.

The Benefits of an Elevated Th2 System

The Th2 immune system is considered an anti-inflammatory profile. This means that the person experiences low levels of systemic inflammation.

The problem is when the immune system is shifted too much to the Th2 system, as people develop allergies to everything. It’s the allergens that then start causing the problems.

It may seem odd why Th2 dominant people have increased stomach acidity. The reason is because gastric fluid acidification can help expel helminths. So, this response is actually quite adaptive, and serves an important purpose in our evolutionary history.

Th1/Th2 Dominance and Methylation

People who are Th1 dominant have lower methylation of certain genes [RRRRR].

In simple terms, methylation silences a gene. In people with Th1 dominance, since they don’t methylate or silence a certain gene enough (interferon gamma), too much of it is produced and that has a ripple effect throughout the immune system. In MS, another Th1 dominant condition, homocysteine is elevated, indicating hypomethylation [R].

The result is that people with Th1 dominance produce too much interferon gamma, which may result in intolerance to food and a delayed hypersensitivity to these foods.

In Th2 dominance, the opposite is true, and there is too much methylation of the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in too little interferon gamma being produced and, therefore, more Th2 cells and their products.

In Th2 dominance, people are under/hypomethylating a different gene (IL-4) [RR].

In both kinds of dominance, some genes are over-methylated and some under-methylated. Even so, upping your methylation with TMG, SAM-e, and B-vitamins should deactivate the immune system to a degree. I have had a positive experience with these supplements.

Inflammatory Diseases That Are Neither Th1 nor Th2 Dominant

  • Autism [R]
  • IBS and ADHD are associated with inflammation, but can have elevations of either Th1 or Th2 systems [RR]
  • Heart disease is from IFN-gamma, VEGF, TGF-beta1. IL-10 has protective effects [RR]
  • Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 during manic and depressive phases, and IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 are elevated during mania
  • Schizophrenia, as some studies show it’s Th1 dominant, while others show elevated TNF-alpha and IL-6 is the culprit [RR]
  • OCD cytokine profiles vary, but meta-analyses only showed a reduction in IL-1b in people with OCD as a common denominator; my experience has been that my OCD had disappeared after I eliminated my inflammation. This is likely a result of reduced glutamate excitotoxicity that was a result of inflammation [R]
  • Ulcerative colitis has no dominant system, but has increased IL-8 levels [R]
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome has increased IL-2, a Th1 cytokine [R]
  • Diabetic neuropathy has elevated IL-18 and TGF-beta – there’s no dominant profile here. Other inflammatory factors include PDGF AA/BB, RANTES, leptin, osteoprotegerin, G-CSF, sE-Selectin, sICAM, sVCAM, CRP and fibrinogen. Patients with painful neuropathy had higher sICAM-1 and CRP levels when compared to painless neuropathy [R, R, R]

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  • Danielle Masek

    Are there genetic markers that can tell you if you have issues w/Th1 or 2? I match some of each so I have no idea.

  • Pat

    Hi there- I have Steven Johnson syndrome. Any idea where that falls? I’m having a recurrence right now. I have been drinking green tea and turmeric tea and now concerned that maybe I should not.

  • Kerry Meltzer

    Huh? Isn’t raising Th1 and decreasing Th2 the same thing? looking for a definitive, clear direction for coffee.

  • Jackeline

    Hello I’m so glad to have found this site and find all topics very interesting. Question is I have no idea if I’m Th1 or Th2 or both. I’m 51 and so far have not been diagnosed with any medical conditions other than (premenopausal symptoms) that require medicines my only concern and challenge is how to avoid my genetics and family history off Heart/stroke disease, Diabeties, High blood pressure, Asthma and staying young=) I lost my father to hear disease. My sister is a double amputee from diabetes 54yrs old my mom lifelong battle with pancreatitis, Hepatitis and at 69yrs old became dianetic. My brother at 40 suffered a heart attack and i lost a brother to stomach ulcers at age 48. All my siblings have high blood pressure. I’m thankful that God at my age has continued to bless me with my life. I have a problem trusting doctors who only want to push pharmaceuticals .


    I have been diagnosed with a autoimmune disease that is very rare called Sclerosing Mesenteritis of the small intestines. I had surgery that removed the appendix, the cecum, and the ileocecal valve. They had all grown together into 1 mass form of fibrosis and fat. MRI results after the operation shows active inflammation is still going on. I show a very high Interferon of 15, elevated IgG And IgE. They want me to take a autoimmune drug Tacrolimis for the rest of my life. WHAT SHOULD I DO? PLEASE HELP ME FIND A SOLUTION.

  • Diane

    I seem to have most of the symptoms of both T1 and T2. I did not see test listed for these. What do I ask y Dr. for?

  • Tarhtianna

    Hello,In the case where you have a condition which is neither Th1 not th2 dorminant what can be done?I did not understand everything in the article.

  • Dominance

    I don’t have a credit card. Is there any other way that I can make a payment to the VIP lounge if I am from South Africa?

    1. Helen

      Sorry for the inconvenience, but there is no other payment option at this time.

  • Dominance

    Very confusing. My food allergies (swelling of the nasal muscles after eating Gluten followed by nose dripping, chest infection etc) say I am TH2 dominant BUT I am intolerant to stimulants like Ashwagandha, Rhodiola, Theanine and Lemon Balm.

    Could you please advise if I am TH1 or TH2 dominant or perhaps T17dominant?

    1. Helen

      Hi, you can ask Joe inside of VIP: or over at

  • Dr. Nicole DiNezza, DC, NTP

    Whoops- not sure if the “reply” feature worked. Dave, please see my response above.

  • Dr. Nicole DiNezza, DC, NTP

    If you struggle with candida there is a very good chance you are TH2 polarized. Candida (and other bugs) manipulate our immune systems to ensure their survival, and in this case that means TH2 polarization and weakening of TH1 immunity. I would strongly consider finding a functional medicine doctor to work with if you haven’t already.

    Best of luck!

  • Dave

    Never heard of th1 and th2 vit it explains a lot. What’s the best supplements to take when have multiple conditions in both categories. I have asthma, psoriasis, leaky gut / candida. When I treat psoriasis with vitamin D3 it helps little but makes candida worse. When I treat candida with coconut oil or natural antifungal it gets better but makes psoriasis flare up.. I also get die off Symptoms when I take supplements and blood pressure fluctuates. Sounds like a classic case of taking stuff to raise and lower th1 and th2 rather then modulate th1 and th2. I tried pycnogenol and was great for while then seemed to stop working after few months.

  • Dr. Nicole DiNezza, DC, NTP

    Yes, I know you have a TH17 article, too 🙂 My point was that many of the listed “TH1 dominant diseases” are likely not TH1 dominant at all, so you may want to modify this post.

  • Dr. Nicole DiNezza, DC, NTP

    This is such an interesting topic, and I’d like to share some additional insight. I am a functional medicine DC/NTP in North Carolina.

    TH1 cells were blamed as the “bad guys” for a long time, and even recently a well respected health authority told me that 90% of Hashimoto’s patients are “TH1 dominant”. What most people don’t realize is that TH1 cells and TH17 cells share part of a receptor in common, and it wasn’t until about 2008 that we (as a scientific community) even knew about TH17 cells. Up until that point TH1 cells were blamed for all the inflammatory mischief that TH17 cells cause. You may want to go back through your list of TH1 dominant diseases (the Hashimoto’s and Celiac disease articles, for example) and check the date on those articles. I would consider deleting the studies claiming TH1 dominance before 2008, or you could just move those to a section on TH17 at the bottom of the article.

    I hope you and your readers find this helpful.

    1. Nattha Wannissorn, PhD

      We have a Th17 article here:

    2. HM

      Dr. Dinezza,

      I am learning that Th1 and Th17 generally co-exist in autoimmunity. That makes it confusing for someone with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity because with inflammation you want to increase Th1. The other piece is the RORy retinol receptors. What I have learned in my immunology class is that in situations like the above, it is wise to increase T reg to take care of both autoimmunity and inflammation. Additionally, treating with vitamin A to shut down Th17 cells has been advised to deal with the RORy receptor piece. Is this your thinking as well? (I’m in ND school learning from a genius immunologist that we are darn lucky teaches at my school).

  • Lori

    Hi! I was diagnosed years ago with Epstein Barr virus! My eeg was very abnormal and MRI showed some demyelination but no MS! I’m having a lot of neurological issues with confusion, memory and balance problems! Can this be d/t EBV? And is there a certain test that with tell what or how high my EBV is? I was told EBV comes in stages

  • N

    Curious to know what you did?

  • Carol

    Thanks for your article. One thing that jumped out at me was the thyroid issue. Graves disease (overactive thyroid) is associated with weight LOSS, anxiety, insomnia etc. (sounds more like the T1 group, which you said was usually thin), while Hashimoto’s (hypothyroid) is associated with weight gain, fatigue, depression (perhaps more like the T2 group?). The referenced study had 21-25 subjects in each group, so perhaps not definitive? (Were they tested pre-treatment or post-treatment?) Anyway, thanks for all of your work in deciphering this very complex subject matter for laymen.

  • Alan Gardner

    From a medical website on candida:
    A person diagnosed with urethral syndrome (non-specific urethritis) where no sign of infection can be detected found that acidic urine (pH of 4 to 6) is associated with burning pain in the urethra (urethral syndrome or non-specific urethritis). Urine that is neutral (pH of 7) or alkaline (pH greater than 7) is not painful. I took Nystatin oral, 100000 U/ML PMS – 1 teaspoon (5 ml) three times daily for 21 days. From that I got a 100% cure, with no side effects at all. Nystatin is also available in pill form but I do not know the dosage. I continued to have symptoms occasionally while taking the Nystatin, even after 2 weeks of taking it, so I thought it was not working, but I continued taking it until the end, and never had a symptom again. Even when my urine is acid, I have no pain. Before I was cured with Nystatin, I found it relatively easy to control the pain of urethral syndrome/non-specific urethritis primarily through mineral supplements and secondarily through diet. Taking mineral supplements of calcium (carbonate or citrate), magnesium (citrate, malate or oxide), potassium (bicarbonate or citrate or gluconate) and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) makes the urine more alkaline and eliminates the pain of urethral syndrome.

  • Susie

    I had problems with astragulas too. I noticed it speed up symptoms of an autoimmune problem I got from having botox injections.

  • George

    I’d like to know the specific blood tests as well. So far the deductions I’ve made are only through symptoms due to my psoriasis. Nothing solid.

  • Chris

    Which specific blood tests would you recommend to determine th1 vs th2 dominance? Or would you suggest going by symptoms?

  • George

    I’ve got psoriasis and based on what I’ve read so far I must be Th1. Everybody says that L-Glutamine is good for psoriasis, but I’ve read here that it Th2 individuals, not Th1. Should I stop taking glutamine or not? Thanks.

  • DebraM

    I used the information in this article to get my Hashimotos under control. I had inadvertently used Astragalus as an Adrenal and increased my Th1 dominance which worsened the Hashimotos and Fibromyalgia. Through dietary changes and by taking immunosuppressants my TSH levels dropped dramatically and my Dr wanted to know how I did it because she didn’t believe it could be done. My antibodies are still high though and not sure how to get them down.

  • lrc

    I have low cortisol (flat-line, morning 8am cortisol hovers between 7.1 and 8.1) adrenal insufficiency.
    High estrogen, estrogen dominance/progesterone deficiency, luteal phase deficiency.
    Anxiety and depression.
    Undergoing testing for atypical PCOS.
    Struggled with hyperemesis gravidum during pregnancy.
    Had weeks of preterm contractions which turned to preterm labor and ended in spontaneous premature birth at 33 weeks.
    I suffer from eczema, keratosis pilaris, migraines with dizziness, fatigue, dry skin, cystic acne, receding hair line.
    I had an aggressive benign thyroid tumor that grew as large as a kiwi and so I had most of my thyroid removed 2 years ago.
    Insulin resistance and pre-diabetes, which I recently was able to lower my a1c to 5.1 with diet and light exercise.
    I have a very weak immune system and am especially susceptible to respiratory illnesses.

    TH1, TH2? And how to supplement?

  • ben

    I sometime have Nummular Eczema, Seborrheic Dermatitis and/or Psoriasis.
    Am I Th1 or Th2 dominant ?

    1. Nattha Wannissorn, PhD


  • Alan


    my TH0, TH1 and TH17 are very low. Especially TH17.
    TH2 is on the lower reference range.

    So all rather decreased. I have a lot of health issues. CFS, MCS, chronic pain, sleep problems, brain fog, very sensitive, and so on….

    Unfortunately I can not find anything to do if almost all helper cells are reduced.
    Can someone help me?

  • Anna Burns

    Are there ways to increase T2?

  • MeShell Edwards

    I was diagnosed with Eczema at like 10 …. used topical steroids off and on for 30 years …. currently diagnosed with RSS /TSW for 14 months ….
    My skin is angry goin through this …. quite honest i am too …. tryin to get through the process sucks .. if I over moisturize my skin burns …. if I don’t moisturize I’m like concrete and crack and bleed ( which I almost prefer )
    I was always thin ….. until my 30’s then weight fluctuated up and down …. severe anxiety hit in 40’s …. think I’m a little sensitive to dairy ….
    trying to get through this skin healing crisis ….
    Any exact test to see if I’m TH1 or 2 dominate??
    Any advice would be more than appreciated…

    1. Nattha Wannissorn, PhD

      Th2, but you can actually have a problem with both.

  • kelly w

    Hi I seem to fit in more with TH1 but my chronic brain fog and fatigue was started by insomnia so I’m confused as to which remedies I should follow as the th2 resolution seems more fitting for my th1 symptoms.

    Which should I follow? I have brain fog, fatigue, hypoglycemic regulation issues, frequent urination, thyroid issues but I have increased appetite.

    I’ve had this five years now and reading your articles made me cry tears of joy because I had a feeling it was my hypothalamus for a while now but no doctor ever mentioned it. I even saw a holistic Dr because I thought I had adrenal fatigue.

    Thanks for any help.

    1. Nattha Wannissorn

      Maybe it’s beyond the Th1/Th2 and has to do with your nervous system. Read about orexins, cannabinoid and serotonin receptors on the site, and consider booking an appointment with Joe at

      1. kelly w

        Thank you. I’ll definitely look into that

  • Pam

    Where’s the active blood test link? The one I found is not active. I have equal symptoms of both dominance s

  • nenawati

    Andagrahis paniculata is mentioned on both Th1 and Th2, whereas webmd says that it should not taken in autoimmune conditions. I asked this question earlier but could not understand the answer given. Could you please explain more in a layman’s term?

  • Elizabeth Bailey

    Thank you Joe for this one of a kind blog. What is you have symptoms in each one of the areas such as Th1, Th2, Th17, Trep, and the Antigen reaction? How do you determine which way to go?


  • Jem

    maybe this is a dumb question and forgive me if it is but I havE a low white blood cell count can you determine if I am th1 or 2 dominant from this ?

    1. Nattha Wannissorn

      Not really, white blood cell is all kinds of white blood cells. It’s not specific enough.

      1. Kelly

        Hi Nattha,

        Joe states that ME/CFS is a Th2 dominant illlness, but several other studies say it’s Th1. Here’s one of them.

        Many people with CFS have histamine intolerance and delayed food sensitivities (which he lists under Th1) but mainly, we don’t have a ‘normal’ immune reaction to infections — no ‘real’ fever — just a half-baked response that keeps us sick for years, sometimes decades.

        Maybe I’m missing something but do you know if a “normal” fever is associated with Th1 or Th2?

        Thank you in advance.

        1. Nattha Wannissorn

          CFS/ME is a syndrome, so it depends on the case. I’d guess either Th1 or Th2 dominance can cause it.

          Um… I have Th2 dominance with histamine intolerance and delayed food sensitivities. I also don’t really get any fever. If I get a cold, it’s very mild symptoms but it’s long – like 2 weeks or more.

          If the fever is to fight off a virus or bacteria then it is likely a Th1 reaction.
          Not everyone has major imbalances in Th1/Th2 though.

        2. Francisco Sartos

          I suffer all this, since last year I live trapped on a basement by EHS, electrohypersensibilty, also came with SQM chemical sensibility ( ignore the English name) Fatigue Chronic and it seems I suffer Fibromylagia since I was 12.

          I feel wifi signals and can´t have a mobile phone close, my life is Hell now. Dr. Belpomme, number 1 of this says is an irritation of a part of the brain, there is no cure. Experiments are lowering histamine and liquing the blood with Ginko Biloba and Papaya for 6 months. Please help me. I can´t even go out to my garden. Also gave me stress post traumatic. I got no mental disorder as some ignorants believe EHS is. Diagnosed by best cathedratics of psychology of my country.

          1. Debra

            I hear you Francisco Sartos. I am also EHS and isolated, not as badly as you as I still try but I run from mobile phones or they trigger my Fibromyalgia. I use a corded computer and I can use a mobile for txt messages, that’s all. I have 2 Autoimmune conditions on one arm of the immune system and 2 viruses on the other arm. To counteract, I recently gave up Gluten/Dairy and other high Lectin foods and I have noticed an improvement in the EHS and Fibromyalgia. I also walk barefoot almost every day for 30 minutes which gives me more tolerance to EMF. I have been on Proteolytic Enzymes now for over 12 months and they have taken down significant inflammation in my body. Until we know more, all we can do is build a tolerance level up to EMF and I have found grounding and Ozone water helps with this a lot.

            reply icon
  • Alisa

    Does the Th2 have any relation to IC interstitial cystitis because I have gotbthis over the last few years and it has been accompanied by brain fog, bloating, unable to loose weight, ic pain and fatigue please help??

    1. Nattha Wannissorn

      Yes, inflammation can cause all of the symptoms you mention, so the key is to figure out the source of inflammation. I can help you if you’d like more guidance – book a consult with me at ~Nattha @ Team SelfHacked

  • elizabethbattle

    There seems to be a connection between Th2 dominance, iron-deficiency anemia, and recurring candida infection:

  • Tom Rose

    Thank you Joe for your website. I have atypical Wegener’s Granulomatosis and it’s taken me a full year to get a handle on the M.O. of my disease. I owe much of my knowledge to your amazing website. Due to Wegener’s complexity and the conventional treatments, we can vacillate between th1 and th2 dominance. I call it walking the tightrope. Thank you again.

  • Clira Naxos

    Hi Joe,
    you write that Sjögren’s syndrome is mostly (?) Th2 dominant. I’m trying to find out, where’s the truth about SjS and found some articles about SjS and Th1 dominance, also this one and it looks to me that SjS can be both Th1 or Th2 dominant, maybe also Th17 – depending on the antibodies SSA or SSB…..
    Do you think that it could be also Th1 and Th17, and not only Th2?
    Thank you!

    1. Joseph M. Cohen


  • john seville


    In your article you list Sjgoren’s as a Th2 dominant disease, but much of what I read seems to indicated TH1, some articles seems to state it switches also. My experience seems to be TH1 because when I was youger I owould be periodic colds, like everyone else, but for many years now, maybe 10 years, not one sniffle, I also was diagnosed with autoimmune in 2013, but I believe it started in 2007 consistent with some symptoms that none of the doctors could figure out the cause, so it seems logical to me my autoimmune is TH1 and because of that, I never get sick with colds, flu or any type of infections. Some autoimmunes are tough to figure out if Th1 or 2. Now we have Th17 another one to add to the mix that makes things more confusing. Would like to see an article of what Th17 can cause. Thank you.


    1. Joseph M. Cohen
    2. Clira Naxos

      Hi John, this is exactly what it seems like to me! My mum told me I haven’t been sick like other children in the past and now I probably have SjS. Looks like curcumin makes me feel much better and I also found out lot of about SjS and Th1 dominance. Also, I have other 2 conditions connected to Th1 dominance. Maybe, it’s only Th2 dominant after hepatitis c virus, who knows…

  • Stefanie Marlis

    Thank you for this information. sent me the link to your site. I quibble with one small point. People with GERD and LPR generally have low not high stomach acid. In fact, it’s low stomach acid that causes food to sit undigested in the stomach, and there begins a series of problems. I found one of the best sources for information about “acid” reflux. I have LPR, and I’m not refluxing acid but pepsin. Chris Kresser also has good information on GERD.

    1. John Macgregor

      Wonderful article – thanks so much.

      (I’d agree with the above quibble re GERD. Myself & a friend fixed GERD in 1 day apiece by treating it as resulting from low-acid.)

  • Lara

    I’m curious if you have ever dealt with PANS or PANDAS? I know strep can trigger these autoimmune diseases, and wondered if they tend to be th1 or th2?

  • Irina V

    Is it possible for immune system to switch from Th 1 to Th 2 during a stressful event, like chemo fro example? Like having no allergies ever and almost never getting sick, nd then getting breast cancer. After undergone chemo, a year later, my system is reacting to almost every food under the sun, quickly and rather severely, and has most of the indicators of the Th 2 that you’ve described.

    1. Joseph M. Cohen


  • Dianna

    Browsing the net, it seems that people have quite a challenge trying to figure out how to manipulate this through supplements. Killing protocols seem like a minefield of potentially messing up your balance. Is high IL-6 a clear indicator of TH2 dominance? No others were elevated on a cytokine panel.

    1. Joseph M. Cohen

      Il-6 is somewhat neutral – not necessarily th1 or th2

  • mij

    The following states my new approach: forget th1 and th2 ever making any sense:

    “None of the expert sites can agree on what “supports” th1 vs th2, they can’t even agree on what kind of pathogens are killed by which of these th’s. Some of the scientific sites throw around words like “this one is humoral immunity” without describing further, and give lists of names of pathogens “killed” by one of the th’s, lists which are then contradicted by the next scientific site I find.

    Another site states “Bacterial and most viral infections increase your Th1 system” well, other people could say that maybe that means the body needs to increase Th1 to fight those infections, no explanation is ever given why we would want to instead take things to shift from Th1 to Th2.

    I avoid sites that focus on this topic now. “

  • Tamara

    @ Joseph Cohen,
    Okay so I’m wondering if systemic enzymes (also called proteolytic i believe) are good for a person with immune system imbalance?? The product in question is Wobenzym N. Ingredients are pancreatin, papain, bromelian, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and rutoside trihydrate. Ive read that these enzymes can increase the potency on NK (natural killer) cells and increase the function in macrophage cells too. Would those actions be beneficial/desirable in an imbalanced immune system? ( TH2 dominance) (I included the site link below if you want to read any more on this supplement.)

  • Laksh

    My immune system is out of whack. I m 28 .my hairs and face look like I m 60. I have lot of grey hairs and allergic to most of the foods. I m not sure I m th1 or th2 dominant (but I guess th2 dominant). I respond positively to licorice. My body loves it. But when I take ashwagandha I get boils with white head on my face.I have leaky gut and candidiasis.(dandruff). What other supplements can I take.?

    1. AJ

      Please look into heavy metals toxicity especially from silver amalgams

  • Discovery Agent

    I would like to study the diagram at the beginning of the article, but it is just too small for me to read. Is it possible to get a .pdf of a larger version? Thanks.

  • beverly

    what are your thoughts on L-Glutamine 5000? does it help TH1 or TH2 or both

  • Henrik

    Great article Joe,

    I personally have alopecia Areata, vitiligo, unspecific but immune system related nephritis, very heavy mood fluctuations (when I do diet mistakes) and am extremely intolerant to many foods but I do not have any allergy. Unfortunately I did not get testing by any doctor for the th1/th2/th17 status.

    But I guessed that I am TH-1 dominant.

    Like you I was motivated to do research because of my own illness, so I did a lot of research, sometimes broad, sometimes very specific.

    Now after reading through your site I want to thank you for doing this stuff. Keep on going. My goal is to do the same thing in my country if I can get healthier. The best would be have PhD status but like you I have degree in psychology and physical therapy.

    What I wonder is, if you ever heard of helminthic therapy. U mentioned “parasites” as one reason for TH-2 dominance. SO you are aware that such organism can shift to TH2. There are of course very harmful parasites which can make people sick. But there also parasites which can be beneficial. There is some research done about that and I read all of it.

    I would love to talk/discuss to you about that as this can be very interesting for people with TH1 dominance and even for people who are TH2 dominant because long term there is increase in IL-10 and experience shows that there are lot of people who lost all their IGE related allergies with using “benign” helminths. Benign means that those helminths won´t harm the human body as long as you take just therapeutic doses. They also cannot replicate within your body as long as you do not shit into soil and walk through it few weeks later :-). As you mentioned yourself, some genetic profiles are beneficial in one area and detrimental in other areas. Some of us must be genetically primed to live in areas where parasites like helminths are common and if you then miss those, you get an imbalanced immune system showing up TH1 dominance. So the goal is to expose your body to an environment it is used to. This is the hypothesis.

    Please let me know if you would like to talk about that and of course I understand if you don´t have any time for that. Maybe I then would consult you if I won´t have success with that therapy to try out other ideas. But this will take time. Because I started with a very “mild” helminth. If this one won´t work enough I will try out other species as well.

    So far it is looking good with my self experiment as I have major regrowth of hair which I had not in 4 years. Also my mood is much more stable and especially depressive symptoms are improved. But it is too early to judge because I am in week 9 and it take at least 3-4 months to see the immun system shifting.

    I friended you on facebook today. So always feel welcome to contact me and please keep going the good work!


  • Ionela

    I’ve read somewhere that a person can have both th-1 and th-2 rised. Is that possible? I’ve read somewhere else that th-1 and th-2 exclude each other: either you are one either the other. So hao is it?

    Also let’s say my tests show I’m th-2 dominant so I make antibodies to my thyroid. But what I know for sure is that my immune system attacks my thyroid so doesn’t that mean that I’m making NK and cytotoxic T cells? From what I’ve know this cells are the ones that actually make the attack.

    Can you please help me? I’m really confused.

    1. Joseph M. Cohen

      Yes, that’s possible to be both

      1. Ionela

        Yes but if the person is both how does that deal with the fact that th-1 and th-2 exclude each other!?

        Also my example is: let’s say my tests show I’m th-2 dominant so I make antibodies to my thyroid. But what I know for sure is that my immune system attacks my thyroid so doesn’t that mean that I’m making NK and cytotoxic T cells? (From what I’ve know this cells are the ones that actually make the attack.) so that would mean I am TH-1 too.

        From what I’ve read in a healthy immune system th-1/th-2 paths switch. Only on an autoimmune immune system they remain bloced on one path or another.

        1. Joseph M. Cohen

          YOu can have a lot of T helper cells

          1. Ionela

            That does NOT answer to my questions!

            reply icon
        2. Michael

          If you’re both, your goal is to modulate your immune system, not to increase or decrease specific Th1 or Th2 cytokines. This helps keep the two systems in balance while your immune system modulates toward normalcy. There are compounds and herbs that help do just that. Don’t remember right off what they are, but you might look at PRP (proline rich polypeptides) and colostrum as a start.

      2. Sally

        hi Joe.
        perhaps some of your info and answers seem vague because science is only seeing the tip of the immune iceberg? you can only give info that is proven or some that is personally observed by yourself about which I see that you do a great job in differentiating the two. I would appreciate your take on what is going on in the autoimmune disease Sarcoidosis. There isn’t much on google search. One study checks Th1 and Th2 levels in specific organs and bronchoalveolar washing fluid and finds different elevations in different organs and fluids but I don’t think that is the same as immune markers in the blood.

  • Laura Hawley

    All of my Th1 and Th 2 are high except for IL 12 is normal and IL5 and IL 10 are both very low-below 10 percent. My TNFy, IL2, IL15, IL8, TNF R II , IL 4 , IL 17 and IL 23 are all very high. I have zero IL5. Does this mean both are dominant? What do I do? My CD 4 and 8 are above average but my NK cell activity is only 4 percent. How on earth do I balance it all out?

  • Betsy

    An interesting homeopathic remedy for chronic fatigue.

    It supposedly balances the immune system no matter which way it is shifted.

  • Deb

    Can you have a normal TH2 but Weak Th1 and not so much dominance or overactive anything??

    1. Joseph M. Cohen


  • Katja Bloigu

    It is so complicated…I have symptoms of TH1 dominance (allergies so on.) But I have never been thin. I am not overweight either. I have Hashimoto too. My biggest problem is unworking T1 hormone and I cannot tolerate the heat at all. I try to get help for this. I know almost all about Nutrition and supplements. I feel very well now but heat will kill me when the summer comes. Which can help people like me??

    On another link you tell about lectines. I think diet by your blood type is normative fact and that is all based on lectines. Me too, as thousands of other people knows that it works.

    1. Joseph M. Cohen

      You needn’t be thin

  • alma

    If someone have hashimoto (and take Syntroid) plus rashes, hives(not all the time and unknown trigger) and watery eyes and runny nose(only in mornings) Is TH1 dominant or Th2?
    Thank you for help

    1. alma

      any thoughts? Thank you

    2. Sandie

      I too had rashes and not well when I was on synthroid, eltroxin and levo… I was switched over to desiccated compounded thyroid and had IgG food intolerance test done. Gluten is the worst allergy but I was also allergic to soy, corn, nightshade, legumes, almonds, dairy, mold, sulfa drugs and a few more. Alcohol because most are grain based was an immediate reaction. If you want to do a TH1/TH2 challenge, use green tea extract one week and see how you feel and echinacea the second week and see how you feel. If you feel terrible and react with echinacea, you are TH1 dominant and if you feel terrible on green tea extract, then you are TH2 dominant. Make sure you are using concentrated extracts.

  • Joseph M. Cohen

    A redditor hypothesized that he will deplete his Th1 cells to permanently reduce inflammation and thereby increase cognitive function.

    Here was my response:

    -If you have inflammation, getting rid of it is the lowest hanging fruit to increasing cognitive function, more than any nootropic. So we agree there.

    -The approach of using up your Th0 cells will not work, as your body can produce more of them from the bone marrow. I haven’t seen studies that say you can use them up – if you know of any, I’ll read it. Nor would you want to use them up.

    -It’s not the Th1 cells that are doing the damage. First they need to be activated. Cytokines do that and it’s the cytokines that cause various ‘imbalances’ for the worse in the body (but not direct damage). Once activated, it’s the effector cells (macrophages, CD8 T cells) and especially the neutrophils which release molecules that do the actual damage. The end products are ROS such as superoxide and other harmful molecules.

    -Very low, intermittent levels of inflammation can actually be good for some aspects of cognition.

    -‘Inflammation’ is much more complex than simply the Th1/Th2 paradigm, although it certainly has its value (which is why I wrote the articles).

    -The supplements decrease inflammation only while you’re taking them and a bit after.

    -Depleting your immune system will make you susceptible to every bug around. If you wanted to deplete your Th1 cells, you can simply infect yourself with HIV 😉 My point is that it can keep viral infections at bay as well.

    -Almost all of the the time, inflammation has a root cause and isn’t simply genetic.

    -I started mining the DNA in order to differentiate between people who have inflammation caused mostly by genetics vs mostly from environmental. So far, I’m happy with the way the research is going, but I’ve only scratched the surface.

  • kaydeewilkie

    I have Hashimotos, have been thin all my life, have high cortisol, gut dysbiosis, estrogen dominance, and have issues with histamine. Can you be TH1 dominant and have Hashimotos and histamine issues? I definitely have more of the Th1 dominant symptoms.

    1. Joseph M. Cohen


  • anne

    I just had this test done I have Hashis and Cleiac , Hypo and nothing flagged. all in range….. Hmmm Im on LDN?

  • Jo

    This article suggests I have TH1 dominance and doesn’t involve antibodies but my anti-TPO antibodies are elevated at 141 (0-34 normal range) so how can that be?

    1. Joe

      No, it certainly can involve antibodies.

  • culturedsf

    Symptoms from both Th1 and Th2 lists. Hmmm if getting my genome tested shows mutations in my methylation genetics can I cross reference those genes to decide if I have Th1 or Th2 dominance? Another great dense article for me to pick through and research. thanks:)

    1. Joe


  • Abe

    Is it possible that your TH dominance can change over time? From TH2 to TH1/TH2 for example.

    1. Sandie

      The conditions are not set in stone between TH1 & TH2. I have conditions on both sides of the list but I am TH2 dominant. Read the book Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms? by Datis Kharrazian

  • Micci

    Joe, I have had horrid brain fog, which causes me to make more errors than normal. It’s as if I have ADD to the extreme. Because of this, my memory has diminished, recalling information is very hard… I always forget what I am going to say. Now, people associate this with stupidity and because of that I’ve developed horrible insecurities which led to severe social anxiety. Doctors cannot figure out what is wrong with me. Sometimes I cannot remember how to spell simple words, or they do not look familiar. I FEEL SO CRAZY. Sometimes I feel great, alert, and can comprehend information really well, but typically I have the brain fog. I have tried on numerous occasions narrowing down the variables but no luck. I also have CFS and have had blood test down, but everything was normal. I started taking fish oils and that has helped CFS like 50% but not the brain fog. Do you have any ideas/ advice?

    1. renee

      Hi there, i used to have severe brain fog too. I recently tried the Whole 30 diey and my brain fog is completely gone. O highly recommend reading the book called “it starts with food.” It changed my life. GOod luck!

      1. Sandie

        I too experienced brain fog and followed a strict paleo + diet but with time, if you don’t find the cause of your symptoms, the fog overcomes you. I recently tried chelation in Toronto ( After the first treatment H2O2 followed by Adrenal and vitamins, I noticed my pain and fog improve…it gets better and better. The doctor found a bacteria in my lungs which I know I have had for many years. I was also found to have extremely high heavy metals so I am chelating that out now…pretty amazing to have a working brain again. I am still TH2 dominant with many autoimmune problems but the reactions taking much longer to start…I’m not side blinded. It’s taken many years to fall apart so healing will take time. While you research chelation, you may want to work on your methylation pathway by taking SAMe and Cordyceps Sinensis.

    2. Bob

      Do you have many amalgam (“silver”) fillings?

  • Judy Morgan

    Joe, seriously…..having major brain fog, I can barely make it through the first couple of paragraphs. Could you do a post that is short and sweet?

    From what I could gather I’m probably th1 but obese, so I would like to understand this better. Thanks!

    1. Joe


  • Patrick

    Hi joe, you mention that NAC has no effect on either th1 or th2 – but at the same time you mentioned that glutathione sufficiency/deficiency has an effect on th2 levels? How does this work then?

    1. Joe

      Contradictory – closer inspection needed

      1. Layla Bazzy

        Hi, NAC does have an effect on th2. Take care

  • david

    Ashwagandha shows no connection between either th’s?

    1. david

      Apologize, missed your info regarding it at first initial glance. Intriguing post btw.

    2. Layla Bazzy

      Ashwagandha is great for those showing Th2 dominance.

  • Junior Valadares

    This post make sense. Add to your research: auto-hemotherapy. This worked wonders for me. Maybe can help you.

    1. Joe


  • David Feldman

    Is it possible to BECOME TH1 dominant ? It appears that I was having TH2 dominance issues two years ago but no brain fog at all.

    Then, in about a period of a month I started having all the symptoms of TH1 but no TH2 (I used to have chronic hives which was gone as soon as I started having brain fog and I no longer reacted to alcohol so badly + my asthma disappeared and at the same time experienced acute debilitating brain fog)

    1. Joe


    2. Sandie

      To be safe, you need a cytokine panel. I would be concerned that both sides of the immune system are crashing…calm before the storm.

  • David Feldman

    I used to have histamine issues for a long time (hives) + reaction to alcohol and used to feel terrible whenever taking more than 1000IU of vitamin D3 (extreme brain fog). My nose was constantly congested and if I sleep in moldy places I start getting problems breathing.

    From your list it appears that I am TH2 dominant and yet all the supplements that decrease TH1 make me feel better. And taking supplements that increase TH1 (like grape seed ext) do not make me feel better. Ginger makes me feel worse.

  • Jean

    One last thing.

    Check this out:

    By taking 2 of these each morning we get:
    360-400mg of trans-Resveratrol, 20mg trans-Pterostilbene, 200mg Quercetin, 200mg Vitamin C, 100mg GSE and a good dose of green tea extract.

    It’s great that it contains C, which makes green tea and resveratrol more bioavailable.

    After reading this article I believe that this product is the perfect combination for lowering both Th1 and Th2.

    1. Joe

      Didn’t get great effects from pterostilbene. Need to experiment with it more.

      1. Jean

        Darn… I am considering to give it to my grandma.
        Longvida curcumin+PQQ&Ubiquinol has been a great combo for her. She’s 85 years old and she just called me and told me that she’s learning Spanish now (speaks Finnish, German, Swedish and English fluently) because her energy levels is up the roof and her memory has improved. She doesn’t take daytime naps anymore, etc.

        She wouldn’t be on these supplements if it wasn’t for you, so thanks!

      2. MachineGhost

        How much pterostilbene did you take? 50mg ptero is bio equiv to approx 250mg trans-resveratrol. Its also possible the knoxweed-derived resveratrols have a quinone-like effect (both good and bad) due to emodin being structurally similar in the dirty 50% half; the prime reason I’ve quit taking dirty resveratrol due to joint issues suspiciously similar to the negative side-effects of quinone drugs.

        1. MachineGhost

          Whoops, I meant quinine.

    2. Sandie

      Resveratrol, Pterostilbene, and green tea extract all increase TH2.
      Quercetin, Vitamin C can increase both TH1 & TH2.
      GSE increases TH1.

  • Jean


    Doesn’t artichoke also lower Th1 levels as well? Because it contains luteolin and apigenin. If this is the case, we have a new member of the “Supplements/Methods To Decrease Both Th1 and Th2” family.

    1. Joe

      Yes, but it has other things, too, and not enough apigenin and luteolin

  • Jean

    – Those with A1298C and/or C677T mutations should use
    L-Methylfolate / 5-MTHF instead of B9 (folic acid).

    – Those with MTRR A664A and/or A128C mutations should use only should methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin or hydroxocobalamin.

    – Those with CBS mutations should limit B6 and especially in the form of P5P.

    So, yes! SAM-e might be the easiest and safest way to feel good. However, if you know your DNA mutations, then combining the right types of B-vitamins with TMG and even some L-methionine is even more effective in my opinion.

    This is what I have noticed at least. I have all of these mutations except for C677T. I have noticed that B6/P5P closes the route of methylation for me and gives me back pain, brain fog, increased stress (raised cortisol?), etc. Therefore I recommend small doses of it for those with CBS upregulations.

    1. Joe


  • Jean

    Thank you so much for this.

    The day I have manifested infinite wealth I will be sure to remember you.

    1. Joe


    2. Harriet

      Dear Jean, I love this. Will adopt and use.

  • Andrey

    “Food intake resulted in increased levels of gamma interferon production, whereas food deprivation stimulated interleukin-4 release.”

    1. Joe

      great find!

      1. Andrey

        This, while not entirely relevant, may be interesting:
        “Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells.”

        Anecdotally, my allergic rhinitis started shortly after I followed some blogger’s dumb advice to eat a ton of salt 🙂

        1. Joe

          Thanks, I’ve read this study and similarly do bad with excess salt. Salt to taste is perfect.

  • Andrey

    The research link for Coffee under “Methods to increase Th2” says “These results suggest that coffee could induce a Th1-type response of the immune system and prevent an allergy developing. ”

    Considering the above, coffee should be under “Methods to increase Th1”, not Th2, or is there something I’m misunderstanding?

    1. Joe

      Coffee is under methods to increase Th1 and I do horrible with it (including decaf). I meant to also put it under decrease Th2. I fixed it, thanks.

      In a few weeks I will recheck/proofread everything and make sure no errors were made. Until then you’re welcome to recheck everything.

  • Judd Crane

    Excellent compilation.

    Regarding OCD and the immune system, don’t you think it could be a connection like this: Elevated Th2 -> histamine elevation -> BBB permeability -> OCD?

    Also, according to this article Th2 elevation inhibits the PVN and causes chronic fatigue.

    1. Joe


  • Joanna

    I have yet to meet someone with as bad rhinitis/mucous/cough etc as me. I think I have elevated Th1 too, but not as bad. Haven’t had time to try a lot of the things above but I will say what has worked for me so far in order of positive effect.

    glucocorticoids (profound effect) – was put on dexemethasome after wisdom teeth extraction, felt like a god. Was never tired, and had no symptoms whatsoever. Too bad cant take this all the time.

    rooibos tea – (large effect, lasts few hours) I’ve drank other teas but idk why, this one makes me feel a lot better, and the other ones don’t. I drink 3-4 teabags worth a day now.

    moderate exercise (large effect)
    – (immediate) couple reps of 20 on a high resistance band immediately lowers symptoms for a short duration
    – (delayed) muscle soreness the next day has an overall lowering effect on symptoms

    nicotine – (moderate effect, immediate) few puffs from vape has short duration effect

    coco – (mixed effect, lasts few hours) I think I’m sensitive to chocolate because it makes me sneeze, but then after the immediate effect wears off it does lower my symptoms pretty well.

    sun – (negative effect, lasts few hours) for some reason it makes all my symptoms worse

  • Samuel

    Thanks Joe, you’re the man.

    1. Samuel

      Looking forward to the book

      1. Joe

        Thanks won’t be out for a bit

  • Vili

    Thanks self-hacked! I think I am shoving th2 profile, but will have to check out first 🙂

  • Mike

    Is there a good lab where one could test th1/th2 and interleukins for a reasonable price?

    1. Joe

      I’m going to look into that, but I think it’s relatively easy to tell

  • christian

    Great overview! If time, could you state you own opition on butyrates, as there seem to be contrary studies. As you consume them yourself you think they are decreasing th1 in your case?

    1. Joe


  • Jack

    Actually I read more carefully this
    and it says the proportion of IFN- single positive Th cells (Th1 cells) was not significantly different among group, The peripheral Th1/Th2 ratio (IFN-/IL-4 single positive cell ratio) was significantly lower in
    MN (5.3±2.0) than in the healthy control (8.2±4.2;
    P<0.05), MCNS (10.0±5.3; P<0.01) and FSGS
    (10.2±5.3; P<0.01) groups (Figure 2C).

    So, it means that if th1 is the same and th1/th2 is higher in FSGS patients, they probably th2 is a little bit low.

  • Jack

    Also, how important is it to avoid the opposite foods and supplements? For example, if resistant starch,fish oil, green tea and coffee tend to decrease Th1, should I actively avoid it or use in reasonable amounts if fine? Same with grapeseed extract (that increases th2)

  • Jack

    Also found this,

    Based on these findings and the results of the present study, it is difficult to ascertain the development of MCNS and FSGS by the Th1/Th2 paradigm only.

    MCNS and FSGS by the Th1/Th2 paradigm only. We demonstrated that the number of IL-4 single positive cells (Th2 cells) correlated significantly with urinary protein excretion.

    So, it seems that I should do my best to reduce Th2 and increase Th1 trying to decrease IL-4 most aggressively.

    1. Do you have any data to support the choice of the 3 to 5 most important things to do to achieve it?
    2. Is there any cheap, quick and easy way to test for my Th1, Th2, total B cells, total T cells and Il-4 specifically?

    Thanks a lot!

    1. Omega Terus

      Not sure if this counts as cheap, but Redlabs from Belgium has a instant urine self-test for 75 EUR, where you put 1 ml of your first morning urine in a container with some tetrazolium I think and it changes color to dark in 3 minutes if you are Th2 dominant, otherwise the color is either unchanged (Th1 dominant) or very lightly changed (balanced):

      1. Joseph M. Cohen

        I wouldn’t trust that

  • Jack

    I am looking into Th1/Th2 ratios modulation in an attempt to treat a very serious kidney disease (FSGS) naturally. It’s unclear whether it is autoimmune or not, but there is a study on th1/th2 that states the following:

    “Combined, these previous studies support a correlation between Th2 cytokines and the development of FSGS. Because of the antagonism between Th1 and Th2 cytokines, we hypothesized that the polarization of immune responses toward a Th1 profile could inhibit or even modulate the pathogenesis of FSGS. In this sense, the activation of invariant natural killer T lymphocytes (iNKT) by their agonist α-galactosylceramide (α-GaCer) or analogs has been shown to increase Th1-mediated responses, a property that has been used successfully to modulate Th2-mediated diseases, such as asthma [5], [6], [7], [8].”

    So, “to polarize immune system toward a Th1 profile” I should be taking Substances that Increase Th1 responses and substances that Decrease Th2 responses, is that correct?

    If there anything else to consider?

    Thank you very much!

    1. Joe

      Yup, at your own risk.

    2. John Mano

      If I were you I would start with just trying to put the breaks on this condition by increasing Tregs initially, that will not hurt. You can do this easily by taking a single probiotic L. Reuteri. There is a specific strain called L.Reuteri NCIMB 30242. This is a particular version that has expanded properties including raising Vitamin D levels up to 25% without any additional supplementation and cardiovascular benefits, it comes as a package with a Prebiotic called Microbiome Plus, you can get cheap prices on eBay, otherwise go to Swanson’s and get the regular version, it works out about the same price, so check eBay first.

      PS, it you decide to try a Th2 to TH1 shift, the best methods are the Chinese mushrooms, Reishi, Maitake and Coriolus Versicolor, just start off real slow. It would be a good idea to run a cytokine panel before you start and along the way to see what is going on, it is called a TH1 Th2 Cytokine Panel. If they have a Th17 use that also. Good luck!

    3. John Macgregor

      I have a LA diet friend who discovered Niagen on this site & found it extremely helpful for energy. He’s Th1 or Th17 dominant (he’s not sure). I also have energy problems; I have 3/4 of the Th1 symptoms above.

      But I see Niagen is contraindicated for Th1 dom people. Should I follow my friend’s recommendation to take it, or the above list?

      1. john seville

        Niagen will raise them all, Th1, Th2, Th17, but they claim in a good way and they will not cause further issue, but I am not so sure. I used to use Niagen and it did help energy, but it was causing other issues for me. I finally dropped it and those resolved, so now I do not take it anymore. I think like other supplements, there is a lot of hype to it, in time we will find out whether it is worth taking or not.

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